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A mindennapi nyelvhasználat bonyolult stratégiai választásokat kínál számunkra. Mi a hangulat szerepe abban, ahogyan a szóbeli üzeneteket (pl. kérések) használjuk vagy ahogyan azokra reagálunk? Az Érzelem-befolyás modell (Affect Infusion Model, AIM; Forgas, 1995a) alapján ez a tanulmány számos olyan új keletu kutatást tekint át, melyek arra az eredményre jutottak, hogy a rossz hangulat udvariasabb, míg a jó hangulat kevésbé udvarias szívességkérési stratégiákat eredményez; valamint, hogy a hangulati állapotok ezen hatásai felerosödnek, ha olyan környezeti tényezok vannak jelen, melyek mélyebb feldolgozást tesznek szükségessé. Az Elso vizsgálatban a szomorú kísérleti személyek inkább részesítették elonyben az udvariasabb kéréseket, mint a boldog kísérleti személyek; a Második vizsgálat eredményei szerint a szituációs nehézségek kihangsúlyozzák a hangulat hatását. A Harmadik vizsgálat kimutatta, hogy a hangulat hatása számos, különbözo módon közölt kérés esetén fennáll, és legfeltunobb a szokatlan, udvariatlan kérések esetén. Egy jól kidolgozott eljárással a Negyedik vizsgálat arra a megállapításra jutott, hogy a szomorú kísérleti személyek udvariasabbak és határozatlanabbak voltak, amikor egy valóságos párbeszédben, természetes módon kértek szívességet; és jobban is emlékeztek a jól feldolgozott, szokatlan kérésekre. Az Ötödik vizsgálatban a rossz hangulat negatívabb értékelést eredményezett, és csökkentette a kísérleti személyek hajlandóságát arra, hogy szívességeket teljesítsenek; ez a hatás felerosödött a közvetlen és szokatlan kérések esetében. A Hatodik vizsgálat az elobb említett eredményeket kapta, valamint kimutatta, hogy a kísérleti személyek jobban emlékeztek a szokatlan és udvariatlan kérésekre, ami egybevág azzal a feltevéssel, hogy ezeket az üzeneteket jobban dolgozzák fel. Ezek az eredmények megfelelnek az AIM modelljének, és azon kognitív feldolgozási stratégiák szempontjából tárgyaljuk oket, melyek a hangulat hatását közvetítik a komplex verbális stratégiák (pl. a szívességkérés) felé. Megvitatjuk azt is, hogy eredményeink milyen jelentoséggel bírnak a stratégiai személyközi viselkedésre, valamint a jelenlegi érzelem és kogníciós elméletekre nézve.A mindennapi társas élet nagymértékben szóbeli kommunikáción alapul. Verbális üzeneteket használunk annak érdekében, hogy a világról egy közös képet alakítsunk ki, hogy énképünk egységes egészét megalkossuk, és hogy személyes céljainkat elérjük (Mead, 1973; Vigotskij, 1967). A kérés igen gyakori dolog, mégis stratégiáját tekintve meglehetosen bonyolult interperszonális feladat. Annak ellenére, hogy a verbális üzenetek a társas érintkezés minden területén megtalálhatók, még mindig nagyon keveset tudunk arról, hogy a beszélo aktuális hangulata miként befolyásolja az olyan komplex szóbeli közlések kivitelezését, mint a kérés. Ez a cikk egy sor olyan új keletu munkát tekint át, melyek a szociális kognícióval és ítéletalkotással foglalkozó jelenlegi kutatásokat (Bower, 1991; Clore, Schwarz, Conway, 1994; Fiedler, 1991; Forgas, 1995b; 2000) próbálják kiterjeszteni az interperszonális viselkedés területeire azáltal, hogy bizonyítják, hogy az aktuális lelkiállapot jelentosen befolyásolja a stratégiai szóbeli kommunikációt, mint amilyen a szívességkérés. Korábbi kutatásokra (Blum-Kulka, Danet, Gershon, 1985; Gibbs, 1983, 1985), valamint jelenlegi érzelem-kogníció elméletekre (Blum-Kulka, Danet, Gershon, 1985; Gibbs, 1983, 1985) támaszkodva ezek a tanulmányok azt próbálják kimutatni, hogy az aktuális hangulat jelentos információs torzításhoz vezet mind a kérések megfogalmazásánál, mind a kérésekre való reagálásnál.A kérés egy gyakori és stratégiailag fontos verbális feladat. Sok egyszeru kérés már eleve megfelel az udvariasság konvencionális normáinak, és automatikusan, szinte gondolkodás nélkül használjuk, illetve teljesítjük oket (Gibbs, 1983; Langer, Blank, Chanowitz, 1978). Bizonyos esetekben azonban egy kérés bonyolultabb feldolgozást igényel azért, hogy megfeleloen értelmezzük a kérési szituációban eleve meglévo feszültséget (Bavelas, 1985). Az emberek gyakran keresik egy kérés azon optimális formáját, mellyel maximalizálhatják a teljesítés esélyét úgy, hogy maga a kérés nem hágja át a szociális normákat, tehát nem sért meg senkit (Forgas, 1985; Gibbs, 1983; Jordan, Roloff, 1990). Más szóval a bonyolultabb szituációkban a beszélonek pontosabb feldolgozási stratégiákat kell alkalmazni annak érdekében, hogy jól megbecsülhesse kérésének "frappánsságát", vagyis egy direkt kérési forma teljesítésének vagy elutasításának lehetoségét és következményeit. Az új kutatások azt feltételezik, hogy a hangulatnak valószínuleg nagy a szerepe az olyan kérések esetében, melyek nyílt és részletes feldolgozási stratégiákat igényelnek (Fiedler, 1991; Forgas, 1994; 1995b; 1998a; b; 1999a; b; Sedikides, 1995).Everyday language use presents us with complex strategic choices. What is the role of mood in the way we use and respond to verbal messages, such as requests? Based on the Affect Infusion Model (AIM; Forgas, 1995a), this paper reviews several recent experiments that predicted and found that negative moods induce more polite, and positive moods induce less polite requesting strategies, and that these mood effects are amplified in contexts that call for more elaborate processing. In Study 1 sad participants preferred more polite requests than did happy people, and Study 2 found that situational difficulty accentuated the effects of mood. Study 3 showed that mood effects occur across a variety of request scenarios, and are most pronounced for unconventional, impolite requests. In an unobtrusive procedure, Study 4 established that sad subjects were more polite as well as more hesitant when naturally producing requests in a realistic conversation, and their memory was also best for more extensively processed, unconventional requests. In Study 5 sad mood led to the more negative evaluation, and reduced compliance with naturalistic requests, and this effect was amplified for direct, unconventional  requests. Study 6 replicated this finding and also showed that memory was better for unconventional, impolite requests, consistent with the predicted more substantive processing of these messages. These results are consistent with the AIM, and are discussed in terms of the cognitive processing strategies that mediate mood effects on complex verbal moves such as requests. The implications of the findings for strategic interpersonal behavior, and for contemporary theories of affect and cognition are considered.  Everyday social life largely consists of verbal communication. We use verbal messages to establish a shared understanding of the world, to construct a coherent sense of the self, and to achieve our interpersonal goals (Mead, 1934; Vygotsky, 1962). Dealing with requests in particular is a common, yet strategically highly demanding interpersonal task. Despite the ubiquity of verbal messages in social interaction, we still know very little about how a speaker's temporary mood influences complex verbal moves, such as requests. This paper reviews a series of recent studies that seek to extend recent research on the effects of mood on social cognition and judgments (Bower, 1991; Clore, Schwarz, Conway, 1994; Fiedler, 1991; Forgas, 1995b; 2000) to the domain of interpersonal behavior,  by demonstrating that temporary mood states also significantly influence strategic verbal communication, such as requesting. Drawing on past research on requesting (Blum-Kulka, Danet, Gershon, 1985; Gibbs, 1983, 1985), as well as recent affect-cognition theorizing (Fiedler, 1991; Forgas, 1995a), these studies seek to show that temporary moods exert a significant informational bias both on request choices, and on reactions to naturalistic requests.Requesting is a common, yet strategically important verbal task. Many everyday requests readily comply with conventional norms of politeness, and can be produced, and responded to in an automatic, almost mindless fashion (Gibbs, 1983; Langer, Blank, Chanowitz, 1978). At other times, however, dealing with requests requires more elaborate processing in order to make sense of the conflicting requirements inherent in a requesting situation (Bavelas, 1985). People often seek to find the optimum request formulation that is sufficiently direct to maximise the likelihood of compliance, yet not so direct as to violate social norms of politeness and thus give offence (Forgas, 1985; Gibbs, 1983; Jordan, Roloff, 1990). In other words, in more problematic situations speakers need to employ more substantive processing strategies in order to carefully estimate the 'felicity conditions' for their requests, such as the likelihood and costs of compliance and rejection associated with more or less direct verbal forms. Recent research suggests that mood is most likely to have an influence on tasks that require such open, substantive processing strategies (Fiedler, 1991; Forgas, 1994; 1995b; 1998a; b; 1999a; b; Sedikides, 1995).

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