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Bár az IQ kétségkívül az egyik leggyakrabban használt mérőszám a pszichológiában, kevés az azzal kapcsolatos adat, hogyan változik az IQ az életkor függvényében. Még kevesebbet tudunk arról, hogyan alakul az atipikus gyermekek intelligenciája.

Kutatásunkban egy 55 fős koraszülött gyermekcsoport fejlődését tanulmányoztuk. A koraszülöttség perinatális veszélyeztetettségnek tekinthető. A kontrollcsoportot 100 fős, időre született gyermek képezte. A mérések eredményei szerint mindkét csoport átlagos intelligenciája a normál övezetbe tartozott. A koraszülött és az időre született csoport IQ-jának eltérő longitudinális mintázata aláhúzza az életkor mint változó jelentőségét. Az életkorral nem csökkent egyenletesen a koraszülöttség negatív hatása, hanem komplex mintázatot követett. A koraszülöttek jelentős csoporton belüli változatossága és a későbbi fejlemények arra utalnak, hogy a születéskori biológiai rizikónak rejtett hosszú távú következményei lehetnek. Az otthoni környezet feltételei ugyanakkor bizonyíthatóan inkább alakítják a hosszú távú következményeket, mint a perinatális kockázati tényezők.

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