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  • 1 Debreceni Egyetem, Pszichológiai Intézet Debrecen
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A családi tapasztalatok kortárskapcsolatokra kiterjedő hatásának kutatásában tradicionálisnak tekinthető alternatíva a kötődéselmélet. A csecsemőkori biztonságos kötődés feltételezhető előnyeit a későbbi társas kapcsolatokra vonatkozóan sok empirikus kutatás választotta tárgyául. Az ilyen jellegű, korai kötődési konstellációból kiinduló vizsgálatok adatai azonban, főleg hosszabb távú előrejelzés esetén, nem voltak mindig konzisztensek, előfordultak ellentmondásos eredmények, és olyanok is, amelyek igen gyenge korrelációt találtak a korai kötődés és a későbbi társas kapcsolatok alakulása között. Az ellentmondásos eredmények a korai kötődési mintázat stabilitásának és folytonosságának problémáját vetik fel. A kötődési biztonság és a társas kapcsolatok azonos életkorban történő vizsgálatával azonban a korai kötődési mintázatok stabilitásának problémája elkerülhető. Jelen vizsgálat célja, hogy azonos idejű méréseket alkalmazva két egymástól független mintán is megvizsgálja a szülőkhöz való kötődési biztonság szerepét az óvodás gyerekek társas kapcsolatainak kialakulásában. Két településen, Nyíregyházán és Tiszaújvárosban végeztünk vizsgálatokat, összesen 143 gyerek részvételével, életkoruk 5, 5 és fél év.  A társas helyzet azonosítására használatos dimenziók közül konkrétan a népszerűség, az elutasítás, a baráti kapcsolatok és a magányosság a vizsgálat tárgya. A kötődési biztonság mérésére a Szeparációs szorongás teszt Seattle verzióját használtuk (Slough, Greenberg, 1988). A gyerekek társas helyzetének azonosítását pedig szociometrikus eljárással végeztük.  Eredményeink mintától függetlenül demonstrálják a kötődési biztonság szerepét a társas kapcsolatok alakulásában. Az elutasítás kivételével minden a társas helyzet mérésére használt változó esetében kimutatható a kötődési biztonság mértéke és a társas helyzet alakulása közötti összefüggés.

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