Author: Anna Bátki
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  • 1 Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem Pszichológia Intézet Budapest
  • 2 Vadaskert Gyermek- és Ifjúságpszichiátriai Kórház és Szakambulancia Budapest
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Számtalan nemzetközi vizsgálat igazolta, hogy az intézetekből örökbefogadott gyerekek, bár sok területen jelentős fejlődést mutatnak, még évekkel családba kerülésük után is sok szocioemocionális problémával küzdenek. Nagyon keveset tudunk azonban azokról a folyamatokról, amelyeken keresztül a korai élmények ezekhez a fejlődési problémákhoz vezetnek. Az itt bemutatott vizsgálat célja az érzelemregulációs képességek fejlődésének jobb megismerése örökbefogadott gyermekeknél, mivel ezen képességek alapvető feltételei a pszichés egészségnek, a hatékony társas működésnek. A vizsgálat központi hipotézise, hogy azok a gyerekek, akik életük első (minimum) 6 hónapját intézetben töltötték, fejletlenebb érzelemregulációs képességgel rendelkeznek. A vizsgálatban 90 4 és 6 év közötti gyerek vett részt, akik a 3 vizsgálati csoport egyikébe tartoztak: 1. olyan gyerekek, akik születésükkor gyermekotthonba kerültek, és ott éltek örökbefogadásukig, de leg¬alább 6 hónapos korukig; 2. csecsemőkorban (6 hetes koruk előtt) örökbefogadott gyerekek; 3. (kontroll) vér szerinti családjukban élő gyerekek. A vizsgálat során az érzelemregulációs képességet a játék-narratívák elemzésével (MacArthur Story Stem Battery) vizsgáltuk. A három vizsgálati csoport összehasonlításának eredményeit összefoglalva elmondható, hogy igazolódott az a hipotézis, miszerint az intézeti gondozás egyik fontos következménye az elmaradás az érzelemregulációs képességekben. Ugyanakkor az eredmények arra is felhívják a figyelmet, hogy az újszülött korban örökbefogadott gyerekek bizonyos érzelemregulációs képességei is, bár jóval kevésbé, de eltérnek a vér szerinti kontrollcsoportétól. Ez az eredmény összefüggésbe hozható egyrészt pre- és perinatális tényezőkkel, másrészt pedig az örökbefogadó szülők és család jellegzetességeivel, valamint az örökbefogadottság tényéből következő vulnerabilitással.

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