View More View Less
  • 1 SZTE BTK Pszichológiai Intézet
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $204.00

A három részből álló tanulmány kritikai áttekintést nyújt a konzervativizmus kutatásának hat évtizedéről, Adorno és munkatársai klasszikus munkájától eljutva a politikai orientációk genetikai és neurobiológiai hátterére irányuló mai vizsgálatokig. A kutatások mélyreható pszichológiai és biológiai különbségeket rajzolnak fel a konzervatív és a liberális politikai orientációt valló személyek között. A tanulmány arra keresi a választ, hogy mennyire megalapozottak és hogyan értelmezhetőek ezek a különbségek. A kritikai áttekintés arra mutat rá, hogy problémás előfeltevések, elfogultságok és leegyszerűsítő magyarázatok kísérik végig az egymást követő kutatási paradigmákat. A tartalmi és módszertani szempontok felvetése mellett a témakör tágabb összefüggésrendszerbe is helyeződik olyan tényezők szerepének elemzésével, mint az amerikai politika utóbbi évtizedben felerősödött polarizáltsága, a kutatók ideológiai beállítódása, valamint a média szerepe a tudományos eredmények közvetítésében. Az első rész az „autoriter személyiség” konstruktumának kialakulását és klasszikus kutatási paradigmáját állítja középpontba, és kíséri annak fejlődését az 1990-es évekig. A második rész egy újabb befolyásos paradigmájával: a konzervativizmus motivált kognícióként való megközelítésével foglalkozik. Ez az elmélet „megszüntetve — megőrizve” fogalmazta át a témát, és széles körű inspirációt adott az empirikus kutatások újabb hullámának — mindeközben tovább vitt számos kritizálható előfeltevést, értelmezést és módszertani problémát. A harmadik rész a genetika és az agykutatás hozzájárulásait vizsgálja meg. Miközben előremutató és ígéretes a biológia integrációja, az idevágó kutatásokban túlzó és indokolatlan értelmezések merültek fel, amelyek inkább hátráltatják, mintsem segítik a célt.

  • ABRAMOWITZ, A. I., & SAUNDERS, K. L. (2008). Is polarization a myth? The Journal of Politics, 70(2), 542555.

  • ADOLPH, R. (2010). Conceptual challenges and directions for neuroscience. Neuron, 65, March 25., 752764.

  • ADORNO, T. W., FRENKEL-BRUNSWICK, E., LEVINSON, D. J., & SANFORD, R. N. (1950). The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Norton.

  • ALFORD, J. R., & HIBBING, J. R. (2004). The origin of politics: An evolutionary theory of political behavior. Perspective on Politics, 2(4), 707723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ALFORD, J. R., FUNK, C. L., & HIBBING, J. R. (2005). Are political orientations genetically transmitted? American Political Science Review, 99, 153167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ALFORD, J. R., FUNK, C. L., & HIBBING, J. R. (2008). Beyond liberals and conservatives to political genotypes and phenotypes. Perspectives on Politics, 6(2), 321328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ALFORD, J. R., & HIBBING, J. R. (2008). The new empirical biopolitics. Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 183203.

  • ALFORD, J. R., & HIBBING, J. R. (2007). Personal, interpersonal, and political temperaments. American Academy of Political and Social Science, 614, 196212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ALLPORT, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

  • ALTEMEYER, B. (1981). Right-wing authoritarianism. Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba Press.

  • ALTEMEYER, B. (1996). The authoritarian specter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • ALTEMEYER, B. (1998). The other authoritarian personality. In M. P. ZANNA (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 30 (4792). San Diego: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ALTEMEYER, B. (2006). The authoritarians. Kiadó: A szerző. E-book. Letöltve: 2013. 10. 12. http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/∼altemey/

  • ALTEMEYER, B. (2010). Bevezető szöveg a The Authoritarians c. könyve honlapján. Letöltve: 2013. 10. 12. http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/∼altemey/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AMASS, T. (2004). Empirical evaluation of political ideology as motivated social cognition. NYU. Letöltve: 2013. 10. 10. http://politics.As.nyu.Edu/admin/staging/IO/4600/amass_thesis.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AMODIO, D., JOST, J., MASTER, S., & YEE, C. (2007). Neurocognitive correlates of liberalism and conservatism. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 12461244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ARON, A., BADRE, D., BRETT, M., CACIOPPO, J., CHAMBERS, C., COOLS, R., ENGEL, S., D’ESPOSITO, M., FRITH, C., HARMON-JONES, E., JONIDES, J., KNUTSON, B., PHELPS, L., POLDRACK, R., WAGER, T., WAGNER, A., & WINKIELMAN, P. (2007). Politics and the brain. Letter to the Editor, The New York Times November 14. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/14/opinion/lweb14brain.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ARISZTOTELÉSZ (1954). Az athéni állam. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.

  • BARBER, N. (2011). Conservatives big on fear, brain study finds. Are people born conservative? Psychology Today: Posted on April 19, Letöltve: 2012. 06. 20. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-human-beast/201104/conservatives-big-fearbrain-study-finds.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BARTELS, L. M. (2004). Beyond the running tally: Partisan bias in political perceptions. Political Behavior, 24(2), 117150.

  • BAYER GY. (1998). A politikai gondolkodás története. Budapest: Osiris.

  • BBC News (2011). Colin Firth credited in brain research. Posted on June 5th. Letöltve: 2014. 01. 05. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-13661538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BELL, D. (1960). The end of ideology. Glencoe: The Free Press.

  • BERNTSON, G. G., & CACIOPPO, J. T. (2004). Multilevel Analyses and Reductionism: Why Social Psychologists Should Care about Neuroscience and Vice Versa. In J. T. CACIOPPO, & G. G. BERNTSON (Eds.), Essays in Social Neuroscience (107120). Boston: M.I.T. Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BICKART, K. C., WRIGHT, C. I., DAUTOFF, R. J., DICKERSON, B. C., & BARRETT, L. F. (2011). Amygdala volume and social network size in humans. Nature Neuroscience 14, 163164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BISHOP, G. F. (2005). The Illusion of Public Opinion: Fact and Artifact in American Public Opinion Polls. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BIUSO, E. (2008). Genopolitics. The Times Magazine, December 12. Letöltve: 2014.03.12. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/14/magazine/14Ideas-Section2-B-t-007.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BLEIFUSS, J. (2003). Conservatives Deconstructed. These Times Magazine. Letöltve: 2012. 03. 12. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Society/Conservatives_Deconstruct.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BLOCK, J., & BLOCK, J. H. (2006). Nursery school personality and political orientation two decades later. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(5), Oct 2006, 734749.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BOLDOGKŐI ZS. (2013). Politikai nézetekkel születünk? Index, Február 20. Letöltve: 2013. 04. 13. http://index.hu/tudomany/2013/02/20/politikai_nezetekkel_szuletunk/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BORGER, J. (2003). Study of Bush’s psyche touches a nerve. The Guardian, Aug. 13. Letöltve: 2012. 12. 12. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/aug/13/usa.redbox.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BOUCHARD, T. J., & MCGUE, M. (2003). Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. Journal of Neurobiology, 54(1), 445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BOUCHARD, T., SEGAL, N., TELLEGEN, A., MCGUE, M., KEYES, M., & KRUEGER, R. (2003). Evidence for the construct validity and heritability of the Wilson-Patterson conservatism scale: a reared-apart twins study of social attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(6), 959969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BROWN, R. (1965). Social Psychology. New York: Free Press.

  • BUBELA, T. M., & CAULFIELD, T. A. (2004). Do the print media “hype” genetic research? A comparison of newspaper stories and peer-reviewed research papers. Canadian MedicalAssociation Journal, 170(9), 13991407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BULLOCK, J. (2007). Experiments on partisanship and public opinion: Party cues, false beliefs, and Bayesian updating. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University. Letöltve: 2012. 04. 12. https://www.gwern.net/docs/2007-bullock.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CACIOPPO, J. T., & PETTY, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116131.

  • CARDIFF, C. F., & KLEIN, D. B. (2005). Faculty Partisan Affiliations. In All Disciplines: a voter-registration study. Critical Review, 17(34), 237255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CARMEN, I. (2007). Genetic configurations of political phenomena. American Academy of Political and Social Science, 614, 3455.

  • CARNEY, D. R., JOST, J. T., GOSLING, S. D., & POTTER, J. (2008). The Secret Lives of Liberalsand Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things TheyLeave Behind. Political Psychology, 29(6), 807840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CHAMBERS, J. R., SCHLENKER, B. R., & COLLISON, B. (2013). Ideology and prejudice: the role of value conflicts. Psychology Science, 24(2), 140149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CHAO, T. (2012). Genes may determine how we vote. ABC News Medical Unit. Posted on Aug. 27. Letöltve: 2012.12.17. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/OTUS/genes-shape-politicalopinions/story?id=17087314#.UuwFklrthJE

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CHARNEY, E. (2012). Behavior Genetics and Postgenomics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(5), 331358.

  • CHARNEY, E., & ENGLISH, W. H. (2013). Genopolitics and the Science of Genetics. American Political Science Review, 107(2), 382395.

  • CHARNEY, E. (2010). Epigenetics and the genetic explanations of political behavior. Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, April 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CHARNEY, E. (2008). Genes and ideologies. Perspectives on Politics, 6(2), 299315.

  • CICCHETTI, D., & CURTIS, J. (2006). The developing brain and neural plasticity: Implications for normality, psychopathology and resilience. In D. CICHETTI, & D. J. COHEN (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology, 2. Developmental Neuroscience (251). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CHRISTIE, R., & JAHODA, M. (Eds.) (1954). Studies in the scope and method of “The Authoritarian Personality”. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CLAASEN, C., TUCKER, P., & SMITH, S. S. (2014). Ideological labels in America. Political Behavior, April, 10. 1007/s11109-014-9272-6.CNN Election Center. Election Results, 2010. Letöltve: 2013. 06. 10. http://edition.cnn.com/ELECTION/2010/results/polls/#USH00p1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CONRAD, P. (2001). Genetic optimism: framing genes and mental illness in the news. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 25(2), 225247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CONRAD, P., & MARKENS, S. (2001). Constructing the “gay gene” in the news: optimism andskepticism in the U.S. and British press. Health, 5(3), 373400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CONVERSE, P. E. (1964). The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics. In D. E. APTER(Ed.), Ideology and Discontent (206261). New York: Free Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CONVERSE, P. E. (2000). Assessing the capacity of mass electorates. Annual Review of Political Science, 3, 331353.

  • CORRADETTI, C. (é. n.). The Frankfurt School and critical theory. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Letöltve: 2014. 12. 05. http://www.iep.utm.Edu/frankfur/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • COSMIDES, L., & TOOBY, J. (1992). Cognitive adaptations for social change. In J. BARKOW, L. COSMIDES, & J. TOOBY (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generationof culture (xxx–xxx). New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CROWSON, H. M. (2009). Are all conservatives alike? A study of the psychological correlates of cultural and economic conservatism. Journal of Psychology, 143(5), 449463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CSEPELI GY. , MURÁNYI I., PRAZSÁK G. és VÁGI Z. (2010). Régi és új tekintélyelvűség: Család és az állam. Új tekintélyelvűség projekt. Letöltve: 2013. 06. 10. http://konfliktuskutato.hu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=273:regies-uj-tekintelyelvseg-csalad-es-az-allam&catid=31:uj-tekintelyelvseg

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DAR-NIMROD, I., & HEINE, S. J. (2011). Genetic essentialism: On the deceptive determinism of DNA Psychological Bulletin, 137(5), 800818.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DAR-NIMROD, I. (2012). Postgenomics and genetic essentialism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35(5), 362363.

  • DEAR, P. H. (2009) Copy-number variation: The end of the human genome? Trends in Biotechnology, 27(8), 448454.

  • DE REGT, S., MORTELMANS, D., & SMITS, T. (2011). Left-wing authoritarianism is not a myth, but a worrisome reality. Evidence from 13 Eastern European countries. Communistand Post-Communist Studies, 44, 299308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DODD, M., BALZER, A., JACOBS, C., GRUSCZYNSZKI, M., SMITH, K., & HIBBING, J. (2012). The political left rolls with the good and the political right confronts the bad: connecting physiology and cognition to preferences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal SocietyB: Biological Sciences, 367, 640649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DRUCKMAN, J. N. (2011). Foreward. In P. HATEMI, & R. MCDERMOTT (Eds.), Man is by nature a political animal: Evolution. Biology, and Politics (ix–xii). Chicago: University ofChicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DUCKITT, J. (2009). Authoritarianism and dogmatism. In M. R. LEARY, & R. H. HOYLE (Eds.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Social Behavior (298317). London: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DUCKITT, J. (1989). Authoritarianism and group identification: A new view of an old construct. Political Psychology, 10(1), 6384.

  • DUCKITT, J. (2001). A dual-process cognitive-motivational theory of ideology and prejudice. In M. P. ZANNA (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (41113). San Diego: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DURIEZ, B., & VAN HIEL, A. (2002). The march of modern fascism. A comparison of social dominance orientation and authoritarianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 11991213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EAVES, U., & EYSENCK, H. J. (1974). Genetics and the development of social attitudes. Nature, 249, 288289.

  • ELLIS, C. (2005). Conflicted conservatives: The politics of ideological contradiction in the United States public opinion. Letöltve: 2013. 05. 30. web: http://www.publicopinionpros.norc.org/features/2005/nov/ellis.Asp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ELLIS, C., & STIMSON, J. A. (2012). Ideology in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • ELMS, A. C., & MILGRAM, S. (1966). Personality characteristics associated with obedience and defiance toward authoritative command. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1(4), 282289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ENYEDI, Z., ERŐS, F., & FÁBIÁN, Z. (1997). Authoritarianism and the ideological spectrum in Hungary. Collegium Budapest Discussion Paper no. 40. Budapest, Collegium Budapestfor Advanced Studies.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ERŐS F. (1986). Pszichoanalízis, freudizmus, freudomarxizmus. Budapest: Gondolat.

  • ERŐS F. és FÁBIÁN Z. (1999). Az etnikai előítéletek kialakulásáról: tekintélyelvűség és szociális környezet. Educatio, 8(2), 233247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EurekAlert (2010). Researchers find a 'liberal gene'. Public release date: 27-Oct-2010. Letöltve: 2013. 05. 10. http://www.Eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-10/uoc--rfa102710.php,

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EurekAlert (2011). Political views are reflected in brain structure. Letöltve: 2011. 04. 07. http://www.Eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-04/cp-pva040511.php.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EYSENCK, H. J. (1954). The psychology of politics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  • FÁBIÁN Z. (1999). Tekintélyelvűség és előítéletek. Budapest: Új Mandátum.

  • FEDERICO, C. M. (2009, September). How People Organize Their Political Attitudes: The Roles of Ideology, Expertise, and Evaluative Motivation. Newsletter Article. Letöltve: 2014. 03. 10. http://www.Apa.org/science/about/psa/2009/09/sci-brief. Aspx.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FELDMAN, S., & STENNER, K. (1997). Perceived Threat and Authoritarianism. Foundation for Educational Research. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FELDMAN, S., & ZALLER, J. (1992). The political culture of ambivalence: Ideological responses to the welfare. American Journal of Political Science, 36(1), 268307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FERRAROTTI, F. (1994). Beyond the authoritarian personality: Adorno’s demon and its liberation. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 8(1) .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FIORINA, M. P., & ABRAMS, S. J. (2008). Political Polarization in the American Public. AnnualReview of Political Science, 11, 563588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FIORINA, M. P., ABRAMS, S. J., & POPE, J. C. (2005). Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: Pearson Longman.

  • FOWLER, J. H., SETTLE, J. E., DAWES, C. T., & CHRISTAKIS, N. A. (2010). Friendships Moderate an Association Between a Dopamine Gene Variant and Political Ideology. Journalof Politics, 72(4), 11891198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FOWLER, J. H., & DAWES, C. T. (2008). Two genes predict voter turnout. Journal of Politics, 70, 579594.

  • FOWLER, J. H., BAKER, L. A., & DAWES, C. T. (2008). Genetic variation in political behavior. American Political Science Review, 102(2), 233248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FOWLER, J. H., & SCHREIBER, D. (2008). Biology, Politics, and the Emerging Science of Human Nature. Science, 322(5903), 912914.

  • GERBER, A. S., & HUBER, G. A. (2010). Partisanship, Political Control, and Economic Assessments. American Journal of Political Science, 54(1), 153173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GOODMAN, J. C. (2008). Classical liberalism and modern conservativism. NCPA, Posted: September 8., Letöltve: 2012. 05. 25. http://www.ncpa.org/pub/classical-liberalism-vsmodern-liberalism-and-modern-conservatism.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GOTTLIEB, G. (1997). Synthesizing nature and nurture: Prenatal roots of instinctive behavior. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GRAHAM, J., HAIDT, J., & NOSEK, B. A. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 10291046.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GRAHAM, J., HAIDT, J., & NOSEK, B. (2009). Liberals and conservatives use different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 10291046.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GREENBERG, J., & JONAS, E. (2003). Psychological motives and political orientation: The left, the right, and the rigid. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 376382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GREENBERG, J., PYSZCZYNSKI, T., & SOLOMON, S. (1986). The causes and consequences of a need for self-esteem: A terror management theory. In R. F. BAUMEISTER (Ed.), PublicSelf and Private Self (189212). New York: Springer Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GRESSLER, S., & HASLBERGER, A. G. (Eds.) (2010). Epigenetics and human health: Linking hereditary, environmental, and nutritional aspects. Wiley-VCH.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GRUSZZYNSKI, M., BALZER, A., JACOBS, C. M., SMITH, K. B., & HIBBING, J. R. (2013). The Physiology of Political Participation. Political Behavior, 35(1), 135152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HAIDT, J. (2011). The bright future of post-partisan social psychology. Talk given on January 27, 2011 at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Letöltve: 2013. 02. 15. http://edge.org/conversation/the-bright-future-of-post-partisan-social-psychology.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HAIDT, J., & GRAHAM, J. (2007). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research, 20(1), 98116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HAIDT, J., & JOSEPH, C. (2004). Intuitive ethics: How innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues. Daedalus, Fall Issue, 5566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HALL, L., STRANDBERG, T., PÄRNAMETS, P., LIND, A., TÄRNING, B., & JOHANSSON, P. (2013). How the Polls Can Be Both Spot On and Dead Wrong: Using Choice Blindness to Shift Political Attitudes and Voter Intentions. Public Library of Science ONE, 8(4), e60554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HANNAGAN, R. J. (2011). From genes to politics. Research in Biopolitics, 9, 139158.

  • HANSON, D. J. (1975). Authoritarianism as a variable in political research. Il Politoco, 15, 700705.

  • HATEMI, P., MEDLAND, S., & EAVES, L. (2009). Do genes contribute to the “gender gap”? The Journal of Politics, 71, 262276.

  • HATEMI, P., & MCDERMOTT, R. (Eds.) (2011). Man is by nature a political animal: Evolution, biology, politics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HATEMI, P., & MCDERMOTT, R. (2012). The genetics of politics: discovery, challenges, and progress. Trends in Genetics, 28(10), 525533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HENRICH, J., HEINE, S. J., & NORENZAYAN, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(23), 61135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HIRSCHHORN, J. N., LOHMUELLER, K., BYRNE, E., & HIRSCHHORN, K. (2002). A comprehensive review of genetic association studies. Genetics in Medicine, 4(2), 4561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HODSON, G., & BUSSERI, M. A. (2012). Lower Cognitive Ability Predicts Greater Prejudice Through Right-Wing Ideology and Low Intergroup Contact. Psychological Science, 23(2), 187195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HOLLANDER, P. (1998). Political Pilgrims: Western Intellectuals in Search of the Good Society. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 4th edition.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HORKHEIMER, M. (1947). The Eclipse of Reason. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • IACOBONI, M., FREEDMAN, J., KAPLAN, J., JAMIESON, K. H., FREEDMAN, T., KNAPP, B., & FITZGERALD, K. (2007). This Is Your Brain on Politics. The New York Times Op-Ed, November 11. Letöltve: 2013. 12. 03. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/11/opinion/11freedman.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • INBAR, Y., & LAMMERS, J. (2012). Political diversity in social and personality psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science,7, 496503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JABLONKA, E., & LAMB, M. J. (1995). Epigenetic inheritence and evolution. The Lamarckian dimension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • JAENISCH, R., & BIRD, A. (2003). Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: How the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals. Nature Genetics Supplement, 33, 243254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JAMIESON, B. D. (1978). Scaling conservativism. New Zealand Psychologist, 7(1), 17.

  • JOSEPH, J. (2013). The Trouble with Twin Studies. Posted on 03.13. Letöltve: 2013.04.05. http://www.Madinamerica.com/2013/03/the-trouble-with-twin-studies/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JOST, J. T., & AMODIO, D. A. (2012). Political ideology as motivated social cognition: Behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 36, 5564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JOST, J. T., & SIDANIUS, J. (Eds.) (2004). Political psychology: Key readings. New York: Psychology Press.

  • JOST, J. T., NOSEK, B. A., & GOSLING, S. D. (2008). Ideology: its resurgence in social, personality, and political psychology. Perspect. Psychological Science, 3, 126136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JOST, J. T. (2006). The end of the end of ideology. American Psychologist, 61, 651670.

  • JOST, J. T., & BANAJI, M. R. (1994). The role of stereotyping in system-justification and production of false consciousness. British Journal of Psychology, 33, 127. Magyarul: A sztereotipizálás szerepe a rendszer igazolásában, a hamis tudat képződése. In JOST, J. T. (2003). Önalávetés a társadalomban: a rendszerigazolás pszichológiája. Budapest: Osiris.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JOST, J. T., FEDERICO, C. M., & NAPIER, J. L. (2009). Political ideology: Its structure, functions, and elective affinities. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 307337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JOST, J. T., GLASER, J., KRUGLANSKY, A. W., & SULLOWAY, F. (2003a). Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 339375. Magyarul: A politikai konzervativizmus, mint motivált társas megismerés. In JOST, J. T. (2003). Önalávetés atársadalomban: a rendszerigazolás pszichológiája. Budapest: Osiris Kiadó.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JOST, J. T., GLASER, J., KRUGLANSKY, A. W., & SULLOWAY, F. J. (2003b). Exceptions that prove the rule- Using a theory of motivated social cognition to account for ideological incongruities and political anomalies: Reply to Greenberg and Jonas. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 383393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JUSSIM, L. (2013a). Liberal Bias in Social Psychology: Personal Experience I. Liberal bias in grant funding. Psychology Today, Szeptember 13. Letöltve: 2013. 11. 12. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rabble-rouser/201309/liberal-bias-in-socialpsychology-personal-experience-i.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JUSSIM, L. (2013b). Liberal Bias in Social Psychology: Personal Experience II. How to purge evidence of liberal bias. Psychology Today, Posted on Oct. 30. Letöltve: 2013. 12. 13. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rabble-rouser/201310/liberal-bias-in-socialpsychology-personal-experience-ii.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KAHAN, D. (2012). What do I think of Mooney’s “Republican Brain”? The cultural cognition project at Yale Law School. Posted on July 27th. Letöltve: 2013. 12. 14. http://www.culturalcognition.net/blog/2012/7/27/what-do-i-think-of-mooneysrepublican-brain.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KAHAN, D. (2011). The Ideological Symmetry of Motivated Reasoning. The Cultural Cognition Project at Yale Law School. Posted on December 13th. Letöltve: 2013. 12. 13. http://www.culturalcognition.net/blog/2011/12/13/the-ideological-symmetry-ofmotivated-reasoning.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KAHAN, D. M., HOFFMAN, D. A., BRAMAN, D., EVANS, D., & RACHLINSKI, J. J. (2012). They saw a protest: cognitive illiberalism and the speech-conduct distinction. Stanford LawReview, 64, 851906.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KANAI, R., FEILDEN, T., FIRTH, C., & REES, G. (2011). Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults. Current Biology, 21(8), 677680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KANAZAWA, S. (2010). Why liberals are more intelligent than Conservatives. The ScientificFundamentalist, Posted on March 21. Letöltve: 2013. 06. 20. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-scientific-fundamentalist/201003/whyliberals-are-more-intelligent-conservatives.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KELMAN, H. C., & BARCLAY, J. (1963). The F scale as a measure of breadth of perspective. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(6), 608615.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KEMMELMEYER, M. (2008). Is there a relationship between political orientation and cognitive ability?A test of three hypotheses in two studies. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 767772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KENRICK, D. (2011). Does Psychology Discriminate against Political Conservatives? Do we need affirmative action for conservatives? Psychology Today, online. Letöltve: 2013. 03. 02. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201103/doespsychology-discriminate-against-political-conservat

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KLEIN, D. B., & STERN, C. (2005) Professors and Their Politics: The policy views of social scientists. Critical Review, 17(34), 257303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KRAUSS, W. (2002). Romanian authoritarianism 10 years after communism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 12551264.

  • KRUGLANSKY, A. W., & WEBSTER, D. M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: “Seizing” and “freezing.” Psychological Review, 103(2), 263283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KUKLINSKI, J. H., QUIRK, P. J., JERIT, J., SCHWIEDER, D., & RICH, R. F. (2000). Misinformation and the Currency of Democratic Citizenship. The Journal of Politics, 62(3), 790816.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LASCH, C. (1991). The True and Only Heaven: Progress and Its Critics. New York: W. W. Norton.

  • LAYMAN, G. C., & CARSEY, T. M. (2002). Party polarization and “conflict extension” in the American electorate. American Journal of Political Science, 46, 786802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LERNER, R. M. (2012). Developmental science and the role of genes in development. Gene-Watch, 25(12).

  • LEWONTIN, R. C. (1974). The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 26(3), 400411.

  • LEWONTIN, R. C. (2000). The triple helix. Gene, organism and environment. Fellows of Harvard Collage.

  • LEWONTIN, R. C., ROSE, S., & KAMIN, L. J. (1984). Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology, and Human Nature. New York: Pantheon.

  • LIEBERMAN, M. D., SCHREIBER, D., & OCHSNE, K. N. (2003). Is political cognition like riding a bicycle? How cognitive neuroscience can inform research on political thinking. Political Psychology, 24(4), 681704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LINDGREN, J. (2012) The centrist authoritarian. Social Science Research Network. Working paper series. Published on March 27th. Letöltve: 2013. 12. 12. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2029435

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LIPSET, S. M. (1981/1960). Working-class authoritarianism. In S. M. LIPSET (Ed.), Political man: The social bases of politics (87126). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LIPSET, S. M. (1959). Democracy and working-class authoritarianism. American Sociological Review, 24, 482501.

  • MACCOUN, R. J. (1998). Biases in the interpretation and the use of research results. Annual Review of Psychology, 259287.

  • MACINNIS, C. C., BUSSERI, M. A., CHOMA, B. L., & HODSON, G. (2013). The happy cyclist: Examining the association between generalized authoritarianism and subjective wellbeing. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 789793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MANNHEIM, K. (1925/1994). A konzervativizmus. Tanulmány a tudás szociológiájáról. Budapest: Cserépfalvi.

  • MARTIN, J. L. (2001). The Authoritarian Personality, 50 years later: What lessons are there for political psychology? Political Psychology, 22, 126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MARTIN, J. L. (1973). The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research 1923–1950. London: Heinemann.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MCADAMS, D. P., ALBAUGH, M., FARBER, E., DANIELS, J., LOGAN, R. L., & OLSON, B. (2008). Family metaphors and moral intuitions: How conservatives narrate their lives. Journalof Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 978990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MCCLELLAN, J., & KING, M. C. (2010). Genetic heterogeneity in human disease. Cell, 141(2), 210217.

  • MELOEN, J. (1993). The F-scale as a predictor of Fascism: An overview of 40 years of Authoritarianism research. In W. F. STONE, G. LEDERER, & R. CHRISTIE (Eds.), Strengthand weakness: The Authoritarian Personality Today (4769). New York: Springer Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MELOEN, J. D. (1990). The emperor’s new clothes? The Authoritarianism Concepts of Adorno et al. and Altemeyer Tested. Washington, DC: Paper presented at the meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MIDDENDORP, C. P. (1993). Authoritarianism: Personality and ideology — Their political relevance and relationship to left-right ideology in the Netherlands (1970–1985). EuropeanJournal of Political Research, 24(2), 211228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MIDDENDORP, C. P., & MELOEN, J. D. (1991). Social class, authoritarianism and defectiveness. A reply to Ray. European Journal of Political Research, 20, 213220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MOONEY, C. (2012). The Republican Brain: The Science of Why They Deny Science — and Reality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

  • MOONEY, C. (2005). The Republican war on science. New York: Basic Books.

  • MOORE, D. S. (2001). The dependent gene: The fallacy of „nature vs. nurture. New York: Henry Holt and Co.

  • MORGAN, G. S., MULLEN, E., & SKITKA, L. J. (2010). When values and attributions collide: Liberals’ and Conservatives’ values motivate attributions for alleged misdeeds. Personalityand Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 12411254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MULLEN, E., BAUMAN, C. W., & SKITKA, L. J. (2003). Avoiding the pitfalls of politicized psychology. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 3, 171176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NAGY, L. (2011). The meaning of a concept in reflections on Conservatism. In D. ÖZSEL (Ed.), Reflections on conservativism (132). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NAPIER, J. L., & JOST, J. T. (2008). Why are conservatives happier than liberals? Psychological Science, 19(6), 565572.

  • NELKIN, D. (1995). Selling science. How the press covers science and technology. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.

  • NEUMANN, S. (1957/2013). Conservatism: new and old. Foreword. In K. VON KJLEMPERER, & J. L. C. CARD (1957). Germany’s new conservatism. Its History and Dilemma in the TwentiethCentury. Princetone: Princeton University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NICKERSON, R. S. (1998). Confirmation Bias; A Ubiquitius Phenomenon in Many Guises. Review of General Psychology (Educational Publishing Foundation), 2(2), 175220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NOLAN, D. (1971). Classifying and Analyzing Politico-Economic Systems. The Individualist, 1st issue, 419.

  • NYHAN, B., & REIFLER, J. (2010). When Corrections Fail: The Persistence of Political Misperceptions (pre-publication version). Political Behavior, 32(2), 303330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OISHI, S., KESEBIR, S., & SNYDER, B. H. (2009). Sociology: A lost connection in social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 334353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OLIVER, J. E., WOOD, T., & BASS, A. (2013). Liberellas versus Konservatives: Social Status, Ideology, and Birth Names in the United StatesPaper. Midwestern Political Science AssociationAnnual Meeting.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OLSON, J., VERNON, P., & Harris, J. (2001). The heritability of attitudes: a study of twins. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 80, 845860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OOI, L., & WOOD, I. C. (2008). Regulation of gene expression in the nervous system. BiochemicalJournal, 414, 327341. org/genewatch/GeneWatchPage. Aspx?pageId=413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’RULE N. , & AMBADY, N. (2010). Democrats and Republicans Can Be Differentiated from Their Faces. Public Library of Science, PloS One, 5(1), e8733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OVERTON, W. F. (2006). Developmental psychology: Philosophy, concepts, and methodology. In R. M. LERNER (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical models of humandevelopment. 6th ed., (1888). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OYAMA, S. (2000). The Ontogeny of Information: Developmental Systems and Evolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • PENTONY, J. F., PETERSON, K. S. E., PHILIPS, O., LEONG, C., HARPER, P., & BAKOWSKI, A. (2000). A comparison of authoritarianism in the United States, England, and Hungary with selected nonrandom samples. European Psychologist, 5, 259268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PETERSEN, M. B., SZNYCER, D., SELL, A., COSMIDES, L., & TOOBY, J. (2013). The ancestral logic of politics: Upper body strength regulates men’s assertion of self-interest over economic redistribution. Psychological Science, 24(7), 10981103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PETRONIS, A. (2010). Epigenetics as a unifying principle in the aetiology of complex traits and diseases. Nature, 465, 721727.

  • POLDRACK, R. A. (2008). The role of fMRI in Cognitive Neuroscience: where do we stand? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 18, 223227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RÁCZ J. (2006). Biopolitika. In BÍRÓ J. (szerk.), Biopolitika — Drogprevenció. Tanulmányok a kábítószer-fogyasztás megelőzéséről (1334). Budapest: L’Harmattan Kiadó.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RAY, J. J. (1973). Conservatism, authoritarianism, and related variables: a review and empirical study. In G. WILSON (Ed.), The Psychology of Conservatism. London: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RAY, J. J. (1974). How good is the Wilson & Patterson Conservatism Scale? New Zealand Psychologist, 3(1), 2126.

  • RAY, J. J. (1976). Do authoritarians hold authoritarian attitudes? Human Relations, 29(4),307325.

  • RAY, J. J., & LOVEJOY, F. H. (1983). The behavioral validity of some recent measures of authoritarianism. Journal of Social Psychology, 120, 9199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RAY, J. J. (1983). Half of all authoritarians are left-wing: a reply to Eysenck and Stone. Political Psychology, 4, 139143.

  • RAY, J. J. (1986). Eysenck on social attitudes: An Historical Critique. In S. MODGIL, & C. M. MODGIL (Eds.), Hans Eysenck: Consensus and controversy (155173). Sussex, UK: Falmer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • REDDING, R. E. (2001). Sociopolitical diversity in psychology: The case for pluralism. American Psychologist, 56(3), Mar 2001, 205215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • REDDING, R. E. (2012). Likes attract: The sociopolitical groupthink of (social)psychologists. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 512515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ROBERTSON, A., & COCHRANE, R. (1973). The Wilson-Patterson Conservatism Scale: A Reappraisal. British Journal of Social and clinical psychology, 12, 428430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ROCCATO, M., & RICOLFI, L. (2005). On the correlation between right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 3, 187200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ROKEACH, M. (1954). The nature and meaning of dogmatism, Psychological Review, 61, 194204.

  • ROKEACH, M. (1960). The Open and Closed Mind: Investigations into the Source of Beliefs Systems and Personality Systems. New York: Basic Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ROSIER, M., & WILLIG, C. (2002). The strange death of the authoritarian personality: 50 years of psychological and political debate. History of the Human Sciences, 15, 7196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ROTHMAN, S., LICHTER, R., & NEVITTE, N. (2005). Politics and Professional Advancement Among College Faculty. The Forum, 3(1), 116.

  • SAAD, L. (2012). Conservatives remain the largest ideological group in U.S. Gallup Politics. Letöltve: 2013. június 10. http://www.gallup.com/poll/152021/Conservatives-remain-Largest-Ideological-Group.Aspx

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SAUCIER, G. (2000). Isms and the structure of social attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 366385.

  • SCHENCK, R. (2012). Conservatives are from Mars, Liberals are from Venus. Posted on April 23, 2012, in Daily Nexus, periodical of University of California, Santa Barbara. Letöltve: 2013. 05. 05. http://dailynexus.com/2012-04-23/conservatives-mars-liberalsvenus/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SCHAFFNER, K. F. (2006). Behavior: Its Nature and Nurture, Part 1. In E. PARENS, A. R. CHAPMAN, & N. PRESS (Eds.), Wrestling with Behavioral Genetics: Science, Ethics, and PublicConversation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SCHIFFER, A. J. (2000). I’m not that liberal: Explaining conservative democratic identification. Political Behavior, 22(4), 293310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SCHLENKER, B. R., CHAMBERS, J. R., & LE, B. M. (2012). Conservatives are happier than liberals, but why? Political ideology, personality, and life satisfaction. Journal of Researchin Personality, 46(2), 127146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SCHMITT, M. T., BRANSCOMBE, N. R., & KAPPEN, D. M. (2003). Attitudes toward groupbased inequality: Social dominance or social identity? British Journal of Social Psychology,42, 161186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SCHREIBER, D., FONZO, G., SIMMONS, A. N., DAWES, C. T., FLAGAN, T., et al. (2013). Red Brain, Blue Brain: Evaluative Processes Differ in Democrats and Republicans. PLoSONE, 8(2), e52970.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SCHREIBER, D. M. (2011). From SCAN to Neuropolitics. In R. MCDERMOTT, & P. HATEMI (Eds.), Man Is by Nature a Political Animal: Evolution, Biology, and Politics (273299). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SGARAMELLA, V., & ASTOLfi, P. A. (2010). Somatic genome variations interact with environment, genome and epigenome in the determination of the phenotype: Aparadigm shift in genomics? DNA Repair, 9(4), 47073.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SHILS, E. A. (1954). Authoritarianism: »Right« and »left«. In R. CHRISTIE, & M. JAHODA (Eds.), Studies in the scope and method of “The Authoritarian Personality” (2449). Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SHULTZINER, D. (2013). Genes and Politics: A New Explanation and Evaluation of Twin Study Results and Association Studies in Political Science. Political Analysis, 21(3), 350367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SHWEDER, R. A. (1990). Cultural psychology — What is it? In J. W. STIGLER, R. A. SHWEDER, & G. HERDT (Eds.), Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative Human Development (143). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SIDANIUS, J., & PRATTO, F. (1999). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SIDANIUS, J., LEVIN, S., FEDERICO, C. M., & PRATTO, F. (2001). Legitimizing ideologies: The social dominance approach. In J. T. JOST, & B. MAJOR (Eds.), The psychology of legitimacy:Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations (307311). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SMITH, E. R., & SEMIN, G. R. (2007). Situated social cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3), 132135.

  • SMITH, S. (2007). A methodology critique in defense of those wascally wepublicans. Iron Shrink Articles. http://ironshrink.com/2007/01/a-methodology-critique-in-defense-of-those-wascallywepublicans/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SMITH, S. (2010). Are liberals more intelligent than conservatives? Another broken study says it is so. Iron Shrink Articles. Letöltve: 2014. 05. 12. http://ironshrink.com/2010/04/are-liberals-more-intelligent-than-conservatives-anotherbroken-study-says-it-is-so/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • STACEY, B. (1977a). The psychology of conservativism. Part I. The conceptual framework and theories of Eysenck and Ray. New Zealand Psychologist, 6(1), 3141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • STACEY, B. (1977b). The psychology of conservativism. Part II. Wilson’s theory and general trends in the study of conservativism. New Zealand Psychologist, 6(1), 109123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • STANKOV, L. (2009). Conservativism and cognitive ability. Intelligence, 37(3), 294304.

  • STENNER, K. (2005). The Authoritarian Dynamic. London: Cambridge University Press.

  • STONE, W. F., & SMITH, L. D. (1993). Authoritarianism: Left and Right. In W. F. STONE, G. LEDERER, & R. CHRISTIE (Eds.), Strength and Weakness: The Authoritarian Personality Today (144156). New York: Springer Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • STONE, W. F. (1980). The myth of left wing authoritarianism. Political Psychology, 2, 319.

  • SUHAY, K., KALMOE, N., & MCDERMOTT, C. (2007). Why twin studies are problematic for the study of political ideology: Are political orientations genetically transmitted? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Portland, Oregon. Letöltve: 2014 05.02. http://sites.lafayette.Edu/suhaye/files/2010/01/plugin-critique_of_twin_studies__suhay__kalmoe__mcdermott_101007.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SZOKOLSZKY Á. (2004). Öröklés — Környezet: Mit is jelent az „is”? In PLÉH CS. és BOROSS O. (szerk.), Bevezetés a pszichológiába (134163). Budapest: Osiris; Eredetileg: In VAJDA ZS. (szerk.), Az intelligencia és az IQ vita (5181). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TÁMOP Kérdőív (2013). A Társadalmi konfliktusok — Társadalmi jól-lét és biztonság — Versenyképesség és társadalmi fejlődés, „TÁMOP-4.2.2. A-11/1/KONV-2012-0069” project 4. alprojektjének kérdőíve. A 4. alprojekt megvalósítója: Kodolányi János Főiskola.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TAYLOR, P., FUNK, C., & CRAIGHILL, P. (2006). Are we happy yet? From the Pew Research Center. Letöltve: 2007. január 2. http://pewresearch.org/assets/social/pdf/AreWeHappyYet.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TETLOCK, P. E. (1994). Political psychology or politicized psychology: Is the road to scientific hell paved with good moral intentions? Political Psychology, 15, 509529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TITUS, H. E. (1968). F-scale validity considered against peer nomination criteria. Psychological Record, 18, 395403.

  • TODOSIJEVIC, B , & ENYEDI, ZS. (2008). Authoritarianism without dominant ideology: Political manifestations of authoritarian attitudes in Hungary. Political Psychology, 29(5), 767787.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TOMKINS, S. S. (1963). Left and right: A basic dimension of ideology and personality. In R. WHITE (Ed.), The study of lives (388411). Chicago: Atherton.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TOMKINS, S. S. (1965). Affect and the psychology of knowledge. In S. S. TOMKINS, & C. E. IZARD (Eds.), Affect, cognition and personality. Empirical Studies (7297). New York: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TURNER, J. C., & REYNOLDS, K. J. (2003). Why social dominance theory has been falsified. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 199206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TUSCHMAN, A. (2013). Inside the conservative brain: What explains their wiring? Neuroscience can help us understand the strangest of birds: The modern conservative. They really do think different. Salon. Posted on Sept. 15. Letöltve: 2014.12.12. http://www.salon.com/2013/09/15/inside_the_conservative_brain_what_explains_their_wiring/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UC Berkeley News. Researchers help define what makes a political conservative. Press release 22. July 2003. Letöltve 2013.06.10. http://www.berkeley.Edu/news/media/releases/2003/07/22_politics.shtml

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VALSINER, J. (2013). A guided science. History of psychology in the mirror of its making. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

  • VAN HIEL, D., DURIEZ, B., & KOSSOWSKA, B. (2006). The presence of left-wing authoritarianism in Western Europe and its relationship with conservative ideology. Political Psychology, 27(5), 769793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WETSTEIN, M. E., OSTBERG, C. L., SONGER, D. R., & JOHNSON, S. W. (2009). Ideological consistency and attitudinal conflict: A comparative analysis of the U.S. and Canadian Supreme Courts. Comparative Political Studies, 42, 763791.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WHITELAW, N. C., & WHITELAW, E. (2006). How lifetimes shape epigenotype within and and across generations. Human Molecular Genetics 15, R131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WIGGERSHAUS, R. (1994). The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • WILSON, G. D., & PATTERSON, J. R. (1968). A new measure of conservativism. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 264269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WILSON, G. (1978). The psychology of conservativism: Comment on Stacey. New Zealand Psychologist, 7, 21.

  • WILSON, G. D. (1973). Development and evaluation of the C scale. In G. D. WILSON (Ed.), The psychology of conservativism (4969). London: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WILSON, M. S., & LUI, J. H. (2003). Social dominance orientation and gender: The moderating role of gender identity. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 187198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZALLER, J. (1992). The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • ZILLES, K., & AMUNTS, K. (2012). Segregation and Wiring in the Brain. Science, 30th March, 335 (6076), 15821584.

  • ZIMBARDO, P. G. (2004). The social psychology of good and evil: Understanding our capacity for Stanfkindness and cruelty. In A. MILLER (Ed.), The Social Psychology of Good andEvil (2150). New York: Guilford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jul 2020 2 2 0
Aug 2020 8 0 0
Sep 2020 22 0 0
Oct 2020 11 1 1
Nov 2020 9 1 0
Dec 2020 8 0 0
Jan 2021 9 0 0