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  • 1 Kognitív Tudományi Tanszék
  • | 2 Nyírő Gyula Kórház — Országos Pszichiátriai és Addiktológiai Intézet
  • | 3 Élettani Intézet
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Célkitűzés

A kreativitás összefüggést mutat a pszichotikus zavarok és a normalitás közötti átmenettel. A pszichózis spektrumon a szkizofrénia pozitív, negatív, dezorganizált és affektív tüneteire emlékeztető személyiségjegyek, a szkizotípiás vonások eltéréseit találjuk, melyek egészséges személyeknél összefüggést mutatnak az alkotókészséggel és az alkotó tevékenységekkel. Hogyan magyarázhatóak az összefüggések az alapveto megismerési folyamatok szintjén? Mely további egyéni különbségek relevánsak a kreativitás kérdésében?

Módszertan

Az áttekintésben olyan tanulmányokat dolgoztunk fel, melyek a kreativitást a pszichózis spektrum, illetve a személyiségvonások, kognitív képességek és társas tényezők mentén vizsgálták. Emellett szemléztünk a kérdéskör neurális oldalát célzó tanulmányokat is.

Eredmények

Bizonyos, az átmenetre jellemzo neurokognitív vonások, mint a csökkent latens gátlás, az atipikus mintázatészlelés, valamint a szokatlan jelentőségtulajdonítás, köthetik a kreativitást a szkizotípia területéhez. Ezen funkciók mindegyikében a dopaminerg rendszerek érintettsége feltételezhető. A kreativitást a pszichotikusszerű jelenségekhez kapcsoló kutatások mellett az empirikus szakirodalom jelentős része hangsúlyozza, hogy a nyitottság, a magas intelligencia vagy a jól működő végrehajtó funkciók rendkívül fontosak a kreatív gondolkodásban és teljesítményben. További, az alkotótevékenységet fokozó tényezőnek mutatkozik a társas támogatás.

Következtetések

Az áttekintett irodalom alapján a szkizotípia neurokognitív szerkezete adaptív tényezőkkel társulva a kreativitás szolgálatába állítható. Az irodalom szintézise felveti a kérdést, hogy miként viszonyul egymáshoz az adaptív szkizotípia és a nyitottság felépítése és fejlődése.

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