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  • | 2 Mentálhigiéniai Központ, Budapest
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A figyelemhiányos hiperaktivitás zavar (ADHD) az egyik leggyakrabban diagnosztizált, nagy családi halmozódást mutató neuropszichiátriai megbetegedés gyermek- és serdülőkorban, amely 40–66%-ban a felnőttkorban is fennmarad. A zavar transzgenerációs átörökítésében feltehetően szerepet játszik, hogy a felnőtt ADHD számos korrelátuma, például az alacsonyabb szocioökonómiai státusz, az interperszonális kapcsolatok zavara, komorbid kórképek fennállása, növeli az ADHD rizikóját, illetve befolyásolja annak lefolyását az utódban. A vizsgálatok szerint a szülői ADHD a gyermekben súlyosabb figyelemzavaros/ hiperaktív tünetekkel, az agresszió magasabb szintjével, jelentősebb funkcióromlással jár együtt. A genetikailag meghatározott környezeti rizikótényezők közül tanulmányunkban a szülőséggel kapcsolatos tényezőkre fókuszálunk. Az ADHD-ban szenvedo gyermekek szüleiben igazolt magasabb szülői stressz, alacsonyabb észlelt szülői hatékonyság összefüggésben áll a szülői ADHD-val. A zavarra jellemző neurokognitív deficitek a szülői viselkedés jellegzetes nehézségeihez vezetnek. A szakirodalom szerint leginkább a hatékony viselkedéskontroll, a konzisztens megerősítés, a mindennapi tevékenységek strukturálása, szabályok felállítása és tartása nehezített, valamint problémák jelentkezhetnek az érzelmi válaszkészség, az empátia területén is. Az ADHD-ban szenvedő szülő így éppen azokban a szülői funkciókban teljesít gyengén, amelyekre ADHD-ban szenvedő gyermekének a legnagyobb szüksége lenne. Az ADHD komplex kezelésében ezért fontos a szülői ADHD rutinszerű szűrése, szükség esetén adekvát kezelés felajánlása. Bár a szülői ADHD gyógyszeres kezelése a szülő tüneteit igazolható módon csökkenti, önmagában nem elegendő a szülőség fontos aspektusainak módosításához. Ehhez a szülőségben mutatkozó jellegzetes deficitekre fókuszáló intervenciókra van szükség. Végül, mindig gondolnunk kell arra is, hogy a szülő neurokognitív deficitjei állhatnak a compliance problémáinak hátterében.

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