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Bowlby elmélete megjósolta, és a következő évtizedek számos empirikus vizsgálata bizonyította, hogy a korai kötődési viselkedés különféle mintázatainak megjelenését elsősorban a gondozói viselkedés érzékenységének eltérései okozzák. Metaelemzések szerint azonban ezek csak harmadát magyarázzák a kötődési viselkedés varianciájának. A gondozási környezet mellett az 1990-es években felmerült a csecsemők egyéni jellemzőinek, pl. temperamentumának befolyása is a kötődés fejlődésére. A molekuláris genetikai módszerek fejlődése a genetikai vizsgálatok érzékenységének növekedését eredményezte, és 2000-ben kutatócsoportunk publikált elsőként a csecsemőkori kötődés egyéni változatosságának hátterében álló specifikus génhatásokról.

Tanulmányunkban áttekintjük, hogy a humán genom projekt eredményeinek köszönhetően miként bővült tudásunk az elmúlt 15 év során. Az áttekintett kutatások fő kérdései, hogy a környezeti tényezők mellett mely gének mely változatai gyakorolnak befolyást a csecsemők kötődési viselkedésére, ezek hogyan befolyásolják a kötődés egyéni változatosságát, s milyen kölcsönhatásban lehetnek a környezeti tényezőkkel. Áttekintjük a bizonyítékokat, amelyek azt sugallják, hogy az idegrendszerben kifejeződő bizonyos gének különböző változatai hozzájárulhatnak a gondozói környezetre való eltérő csecsemőkori érzékenységhez (gén−környezet kölcsönhatások), továbbá hogy a gondozói viselkedés korai eltérései különbözőképpen befolyásolhatják egyes, a kötődés fejlődésében fontos gének működését (epigenetikai hatások).

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