View More View Less
  • 1 PTE BTK Pszichológia Intézet
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $204.00

Háttér és célok

Az utóbbi években számos olyan kutatási beszámoló jelent meg, amely a szülők külső megjelenésének társas vonzódásra gyakorolt hatását vizsgálták felnőttek esetében. Jelen tanulmány célja megvizsgálni e jelenséget gyerekek esetében.

Módszer

Vizsgálatunkban számítógépes program segítségével kompozit arcokat módosítottunk úgy, hogy a kísérletben részt vevő 3 és 14 év közötti gyerekek szüleire hasonlítsanak. A képekből tablókat készítve a gyermekeket szimpátia alapján történő választásokra kértük meg. A gyerekek szüleikkel való kapcsolatát a Düss-mese teszttel, illetve az IPPA kérdőívvel vizsgáltuk.

Eredmények

A 11–14 éves gyermekek esetében azt találtuk, hogy az anyai elidegenedés alacsony foka, azaz a jó kapcsolat növelte az anyához hasonló kortárs választásának valószínűségét. Ez különösen a fiúkra igaz. Az óvodás és alsó tagozatos fiúknál a szülővel való jó kapcsolat ugyancsak fokozta annak esélyét, hogy az anyához hasonló gyermekarcot szimpatikusabbnak találják a kontrollnál. Ezzel ellentétben az ebbe a korosztályba tartozó lányoknál a jó kapcsolat csökkentette az anyához hasonló arcok választását.

Következtetések

Ezek az eredmények azt sugallják, hogy a gyermekkorban szerzett tapasztalatok hatással vannak a gyermekek arcpreferenciáira, s ezek felnőttkorra is megmaradhatnak, befolyásolva az interperszonális döntéseket. Ennek egyik megjelenési formája lehet, hogy a felnőttek különböző szociális kapcsolataikban (például párválasztáskor) előnyben részesítik a szüleikhez hasonlító ellenkező neműeket. Mindennek hátterében evolúciós hatásokat sejtünk, azonban a vizsgálatunk során az egyes korcsoportok között talált különbségek arra utalnak, hogy a kognitív fejlődés sajátosságai is jelentős szerepet játszhatnak ezeknek a preferenciáknak a kialakulásában.

  • Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5) ,427454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Averett, S. L., Gennetian, L. A., & Peters, H. E. (2000). Patterns and determinants of paternal child care during a child’s first three years of life. Marriage & family review, 29, 115136). Haworth Press. Retrieved from. Letöltve: 2015.12.03-án: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=affi- cheN&cpsidt=1162830

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrera, M. E., & Maurer, D. (1981). Recognition of mother’s photographed face by the three-month-old infant. Child Development, 52, 203206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bateson, P. P. G. (1983). Optimal outbreeding. In P. P. G. Bateson (Ed.), Mate Choice (pp. 257277). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bereczkei, T., Gyuris, P. and Weisfeld, G. E. (2004). Sexual imprinting in human mate choice. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271(1554), 11291134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bereczkei, T., Gyuris, P., Koves, P. and Bernath, L. (2002). Homogamy, genetic similarity, and imprinting; parental influence on mate choice preferences. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(5), 677690. doi:10.1016/S0191–8869(01)001829

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blouin, S. F., & Blouin, M. (1988). Inbreeding avoidance behaviors. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 3(9), 230233. https://doi.org/10.1016/01695347(88)901644

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carey, S., & Diamond, R. (1994). Are faces perceived as configurations more by adults than by children? Visual Cognition, 1(2-3), 253274. Letöltve: 2015.09.22-én: http://doi. org/10.1080/13506289408402302

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassidy J. , Shaver P. R. (Eds) (1999). Handbook of Attachement. Theory, Researche and Clinical Applications. London, New York: The Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crookes, K., & McKone, E. (2009). Early maturity of face recognition: no childhood development of holistic processing, novel face encoding, or face-space. Cognition, 111(2), 219247. Letöltve: 2009.02.04-én: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Heering, A., Houthuys, S., & Rossion, B. (2007). Holistic face processing is mature at 4 years of age: Evidence from the composite face effect. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 96(1), 5770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Schonen, S., & Mathivet, E. (1990). Hemispheric asymmetry in a face discrimination task in infants. Child Development, 61(4), 11921205. Letöltve: 2016.01.12-én: http://doi. org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02853.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Little, A. C., & Perrett, D. I. (2008). Social perception of facial resemblance in humans. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(1), 6477. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10508-007-9266-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1989). Human Ethology. New York: Berghahn.

  • Fraley, R. C. and Marks, M. J. (2010). Westermarck, Freud, and the Incest Taboo: Does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(9) ,12021212. Letöltve: 2015.09.27-én: doi:10.1177/0146167210377180

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Golarai, G., Ghahremani, D. G., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Reiss, A., Eberhardt, J. L., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Grill-Spector, K. (2007). Differential development of high-level visual cortex correlates with category-specific recognition memory. Nature Neuroscience, 10(4), 512522. Letöltve: 2016.03.08-án:http://doi.org/10.1038/nn1865

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7(1), 152.

  • Heffernan, M. E., & Chris Fraley, R. (2013). Do early caregiving experiences shape what people find attractive in adulthood? Evidence from a study on parental age. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(4), 364368. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2013.03.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Humphreys, K., & Johnson, M. H. (2007). The development of „face-space” in infancy. Visual Cognition, 15(5), 578598. http://doi.org/10.1080/13506280600943518

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jedlicka, D. (1980). A test of the psichoanalitic theory of mate selection. Journal of Social Psichology, 112, 295299.

  • Jedlicka, D. (1984). Indirect parental influence on mate choice: a test of the psychoanalytic theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 46(1) ,6570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnston, R. A., & Ellis, H. D. (1995). Age effects in the processing of typical and distinctive faces. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 48(2), 447465.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaminski, G., Dridi, S., Graff, C., & Gentaz, E. (2009). Human ability to detect kinship in strangers’ faces: effects of the degree of relatedness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1670), 31933200. Letöltve: 2014.03.12-én: http://doi.org/10.1098/ rspb.2009.0677

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaminski, G., Gentaz, E., & Mazens, K. (2011). Development of children’s ability to detect kinship through facial resemblance. Animal Cognition, 15(3), 421427. http://doi.org/10.1007/ s10071-011-0461-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kocsor F. (2017). A hasonlóságdetekció kognitív érési folyamatai gyerekkorban. In Bóna A., Lénárd K., & Pohárnok M. (szerk.), Bontakozó jelentés: Tanulmányok a 60 éves Péley Bernadette köszöntésére (pp. 119126). Budapest: Oriold és Társai Kiadó.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kocsor, F., Gyuris, P., & Bereczkei, T. (2013). The impact of attachment on preschool children’s preference for parent-resembling faces – A possible link to sexual imprinting. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 11(4), 171183. https://doi.org/10.1556/JEP.11.2013.4.2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kocsor, F., Rezneki, R., Juhász, S., & Bereczkei, T. (2011). Preference for facial self-resemblance and attractiveness in human mate choice. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(6), 12631270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-010-9723-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kocsor, F., Saxton, T. K., Láng, A., & Bereczkei, T. (2016). Preference for faces resembling opposite-sex parents is moderated by emotional closeness in childhood. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 2327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.065

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kővári, Z. & Látos, M. (2010). „Nem segíthet rajta, csak a pszichológus…” Pszichoanalitikus állatmese a színvásznon. Thalassa, 21(1), 7176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, K., Bernstein, D., Pearson, R., Mandy, W., Campbell, R., & Skuse, D. (2008). Changing abilities in recognition of unfamiliar face photographs through childhood and adolescence: performance on a test of non-verbal immediate memory (Warrington RMF) from 6 to 16 years. Journal of Neuropsychology, 2(Pt 1), 2745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Little, A. C., Penton-Voak, I. S., Burt, D. M., & Perrett, D. I. (2002). Investigating an imprinting- like phenomenon in humans. Partners and opposite-sex parents have similar hair and eye colour. Evolution Human Behaviour, 24, 4351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marcinkowska, U. M., & Rantala, M. J. (2012). Sexual imprinting on facial traits of opposite sex parents in humans. Evolutionary Psychology. http://www.epjournal.net/articles/sexualimprinting- on-facial-traits-of-opposite-sex-parents-in-humans/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marcinkowska, U. M., Moore, F. R., & Rantala, M. J. (2013). An experimental test of the Westermarck effect: sex differences in inbreeding avoidance. Behavioral Ecology, art028. Letöltve: 2015.11.21-én: http://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/art028

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mazzeschi, C., Lis, A., Calvo, V., Vallone, V., & Superchi, E. (2001). Düss fairy tales: some data from a new evaluation form. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93(3), 806812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nishimura, M., Maurer, D., Jeffery, L., Pellicano, E., & Rhodes, G. (2008). Fitting the child’s mind to the world: Adaptive norm-based coding of facial identity in 8-year-olds. Developmental Science, 11(4), 620627. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00706.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nojo, S., Ihara, Y., Furusawa, H., Akamatsu, S., & Ishida, T. (2011). Facial resemblance and attractiveness: an experimental study in rural Indonesia. Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science , 2(1), 912. Letöltve: 2015.02.21-én: http://doi.org/10.5178/lebs.2011.11

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nojo, S., Tamura, S., & Ihara, Y. (2012). Human homogamy in facial characteristics. Human Nature , 23(3), 323340. Letöltve: 2015.02.21-én http://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-012-9146-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perrett, D., Penton-Voak, I. S., Little, A. C., Tiddeman, B. P., Burt, D. M., Schmidt, N. et al. (2002). Facial attractiveness judgments reflect learning of parental age characteristics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 269(1494), 873880. Letöltve: 2015.02.21-én: doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.1971

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Potts, W. K., Manning, C. J., & Wakeland, E. K. (1991). Mating patterns in seminatural populations of mice influenced by MHC genotype. Nature, 352(6336), 619621. https://doi. org/10.1038/352619a0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rantala, M. J., Pölkki M., & Rantala L. M.(2009). Preference for human male body hair changes across the menstrual cycle and menopause. Behavioral Ecology, 21(2), 419423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rantala, M. J., & Marcinkowska, U. M. (2011). The role of sexual imprinting and the Westermarck effect in mate choice in humans. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65(5), 859873. Letöltve: 2015.04.21-én: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-011-1145-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Read, A. F., & Harvey, P. H. (1988). Genetic relatedness and the evolution of animal mating patterns. In C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor & A. J. Boyce (Eds.), Human Mating Patterns (pp. 115131). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (Eds) (2003). Handbook of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Children, 2/e: Intelligence, Aptitude, and Achievement. Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richter, N., Tiddeman, B., & Haun, D. (2012). Preschooler’s perception and use of self-similarity in others. Poszter presented at the 7th Conference of the European Human Behavior and Evolution Association, Durham, UK.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saxton, T. K. (2016). Experiences during specific developmental stages influence face preferences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37(1), 2128. Letöltve: 2014.11.21-én: http://doi. org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.06.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scherf, K. S., Behrmann, M., Humphreys, K., & Luna, B. (2007). Visual category-selectivity for faces, places and objects emerges along different developmental trajectories. Developmental Science, 10(4), F15F30. Letöltve: 2016.02.12-én: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007. 00595.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seki, M., Ihara, Y., & Aoki, K. (2012). Homogamy and imprinting-like effect on mate choice preference for body height in the current Japanese population. Annals of Human Biology, 39(1), 2835.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sulutvedt, U., & Laeng, B. (2014). The self prefers itself? Self-referential versus parental standards in face attractiveness. Peer J, 2, e595. Letöltve: 2016.03.04-én: http://doi.org/10.7717/ peerj.595

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thiessen, D., & Gregg, B. (1980). Human assortative mating and genetic equilibrium: an evolutionary perspective. Ethology and Sociobiology, 1, 111140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tiddeman, B. P., Stirrat, M. R., & Perrett, D. I. (2005). Towards realism in facial image transformation: Results of a wavelet MRF method. Computer Graphics Forum, 24(3), 449456. Letöltve: 2015.07.21-én doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2005.00870.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tiddeman, B., Burt, M., & Perrett, D. (2001). Prototyping and transforming facial textures for perception research. IEEE Computer Graphics and Application, 21(5), 4250. Letöltve: 2016.05.21-én: doi:10.1109/38.946630

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vukovic, J., Boothroyd, L. G., Meins, E., & Burt, D. M. (2015). Concurrent parent–child relationship quality is associated with an imprinting-like effect in children’s facial preferences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36(4), 331336. Letöltve: 2016.03.04-én: http://doi. org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.03.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watkins, C. D., DeBruine, L. M., Smith, F. G., Jones, B. C., Vukovic, J., & Fraccaro, P. (2011). Like father, like self: emotional closeness to father predicts women’s preferences for self-resemblance in opposite-sex faces. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32(1), 7075. http://doi. org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.09.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, D.S. & Barrett, P.T. (1987). Parental characteristic and partner choice: Some evidence for Oedipal imprinting. Journal of Biosocial Science, 19, 157161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiszewska, A., Pawlowski, B., & Boothroyd, L. (2007). Father–daughter relationship as a moderator of sexual imprinting: A facialmetric study. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28(4), 248252. Letöltve: 2014.05.03-án: doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.02.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zei, G., Astofli, P., & Jaykar, S. D. (1981). Correlation between father’s age and husband’ s age: A case of imprinting? Journal of Biosocial Science, 13, 409418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2020 7 4 7
Oct 2020 12 2 1
Nov 2020 12 0 0
Dec 2020 12 1 2
Jan 2021 10 0 0
Feb 2021 7 2 4
Mar 2021 6 0 0