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Petra Gyuris PTE BTK Pszichológia Intézet

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Ferenc Kocsor PTE BTK Pszichológia Intézet

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Háttér és célok

Az utóbbi években számos olyan kutatási beszámoló jelent meg, amely a szülők külső megjelenésének társas vonzódásra gyakorolt hatását vizsgálták felnőttek esetében. Jelen tanulmány célja megvizsgálni e jelenséget gyerekek esetében.

Módszer

Vizsgálatunkban számítógépes program segítségével kompozit arcokat módosítottunk úgy, hogy a kísérletben részt vevő 3 és 14 év közötti gyerekek szüleire hasonlítsanak. A képekből tablókat készítve a gyermekeket szimpátia alapján történő választásokra kértük meg. A gyerekek szüleikkel való kapcsolatát a Düss-mese teszttel, illetve az IPPA kérdőívvel vizsgáltuk.

Eredmények

A 11–14 éves gyermekek esetében azt találtuk, hogy az anyai elidegenedés alacsony foka, azaz a jó kapcsolat növelte az anyához hasonló kortárs választásának valószínűségét. Ez különösen a fiúkra igaz. Az óvodás és alsó tagozatos fiúknál a szülővel való jó kapcsolat ugyancsak fokozta annak esélyét, hogy az anyához hasonló gyermekarcot szimpatikusabbnak találják a kontrollnál. Ezzel ellentétben az ebbe a korosztályba tartozó lányoknál a jó kapcsolat csökkentette az anyához hasonló arcok választását.

Következtetések

Ezek az eredmények azt sugallják, hogy a gyermekkorban szerzett tapasztalatok hatással vannak a gyermekek arcpreferenciáira, s ezek felnőttkorra is megmaradhatnak, befolyásolva az interperszonális döntéseket. Ennek egyik megjelenési formája lehet, hogy a felnőttek különböző szociális kapcsolataikban (például párválasztáskor) előnyben részesítik a szüleikhez hasonlító ellenkező neműeket. Mindennek hátterében evolúciós hatásokat sejtünk, azonban a vizsgálatunk során az egyes korcsoportok között talált különbségek arra utalnak, hogy a kognitív fejlődés sajátosságai is jelentős szerepet játszhatnak ezeknek a preferenciáknak a kialakulásában.

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Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
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