View More View Less
  • 1 University of Veterinary Medicine Department of Pathological Anatomy Please ask the editor of the journal.
  • 2 University of Veterinary Medicine Department of Pathological Anatomy Please ask the editor of the journal.
  • 3 University of Veterinary Medicine Department of Pathological Anatomy Please ask the editor of the journal.
  • 4 University of Veterinary Medicine Department of Pathological Anatomy Please ask the editor of the journal.
  • 5 University of Veterinary Medicine Please ask the editor of the journal.
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $836.00

Encephalitozoonosis is an opportunistic infection in animals and humans. Its clinical form is observed in immunosuppressed hosts. We studied the occurrence of the manifest form of rabbit microsporidiosis under cyclophosphamide immunomodulation in 40 New Zealand rabbits. The experimental animals were intraperitoneally infected with 5 Ã 107Encephalitozoon cuniculispores. Two weeks after infection the animals were treated intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide, first with 50 mg/kg and then with 15 mg/kg weekly during the 12-week experimental period. Positive controls were eitherE. cuniculi-infected or cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed animals. The negative control rabbits remained untreated. Both clinical signs of encephalitozoonosis and depression of peripheral blood cell count developed between weeks 4 and 6 in the experimental animals which died during week 6 of the experiment. No clinical signs compatible with encephalitozoonosis were observed in any of the controls. The results suggest that immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide can give rise to a lethal form of encephalitozoonosis.

  • Fox, D. A. and McCune, W. J. (1994): Immunosuppressive drug therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 20, 265-299.

    'Immunosuppressive drug therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus. ' () 20 Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. : 265 -299.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gannon, J. (1980): The course of infection of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice. Lab. Animals 14, 91-94.

    'The course of infection of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice. ' () 14 Lab. Animals : 91 -94.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Forni, M. and Armand, J. P. (1994): Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy. Curr. Opinion Oncol. 6, 340-344.

    'Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy. ' () 6 Curr. Opinion Oncol. : 340 -344.

  • Didier, E. S., Vossbrinck, C. R., Baker, M. D., Rogers, L. B., Bertucci, D. C. and Shadduck, J. A. (1995): Identification and characterisation of three Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains. Parasitol. 111, 411-421.

    'Identification and characterisation of three Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains. ' () 111 Parasitol. : 411 -421.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Levkut, M., Le.nk, F., Bálent, P., Zajac, V., Korim, P. and Sláviková, K. (1997): Bovine leukemia virus-induced clinical signs and morphological changes of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. Folia Parasit. 44, 249-259.

    'Bovine leukemia virus-induced clinical signs and morphological changes of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. ' () 44 Folia Parasit. : 249 -259.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Levkut, M., Levkutová, M., Hipková, V., Kolodzieyski, L., Bálent, P. and Bajová, V. (1996): Demonstration of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits on some Slovak farms. Helminthologia 33, 25-26.

    'Demonstration of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits on some Slovak farms. ' () 33 Helminthologia : 25 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Koudela, B., Vtovec, J., Ditrich, O. and Trávnièek, J. (1993): The severe combined immunodeficient mouse as a model for Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidiosis. Folia Parasit. 40, 279-286.

    'The severe combined immunodeficient mouse as a model for Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidiosis. ' () 40 Folia Parasit. : 279 -286.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ladics, G. S. and Loveless, S. E. (1994): Cell surface marker analysis of splenic lymphocyte populations of the CD rat for use in immunotoxicological studies. Toxicol. Methods 4, 77-91.

    'Cell surface marker analysis of splenic lymphocyte populations of the CD rat for use in immunotoxicological studies. ' () 4 Toxicol. Methods : 77 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Levkut, M. (1981): Effect of cyclophosphamide on avian sarcoma infected rats. In: M. Levkut (ed.) Pathomorphological Study of Avian Sarcomatosis (in Slovak). PhD Thesis, University of Veterinary Medicine, Ko.ice, pp. 105-114.

  • Mathis, A., Michel, M., Muller, C., Weber, R. and Deplazes, P. (1997): Two Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains of human origin are infectious to rabbits. Parasitol. 114, 29-35.

    'Two Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains of human origin are infectious to rabbits. ' () 114 Parasitol. : 29 -35.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McCune, W. J., Golbus, J., Zeldes, W., Bohlke, P., Dunne, R. and Fox, D. A. (1988): Clinical and immunologic effects of monthly administration of intravenous cyclophosphamide in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. N. Engl. J. Med. 318, 1423-1431.

    'Clinical and immunologic effects of monthly administration of intravenous cyclophosphamide in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. ' () 318 N. Engl. J. Med. : 1423 -1431.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pakes, S. P. and Gerrity, L. W. (1994): Protozoal diseases. In: Manning, P. J., Ringler, D. H. and Newcomber, C. E. (eds) The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, p. 215.

    Protozoal diseases. , ().

  • Pástorová, B., Rybo., M., Eliá., V. and Várady, J. (1997): Levels of catecholamines in blood plasma of rabbits naturally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Helminthologia 34, 23-26.

    'Levels of catecholamines in blood plasma of rabbits naturally infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. ' () 34 Helminthologia : 23 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arnensen, K. and Norstoga, K. (1977): Ocular encephalitozoonosis (nosematosis) in blue foxes: polyarteritis nodosa and cataract. Acta Ophthalmol. 55, 641-651.

    'Ocular encephalitozoonosis (nosematosis) in blue foxes: polyarteritis nodosa and cataract. ' () 55 Acta Ophthalmol. : 641 -651.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Austin, H. A., Patel, A. D., Cadena, C. A., Boumpas, D. T. and Balow, J. E. (1997): Ongoing immunologic activity after short courses of pulse cyclophosphamide in the NZB/W murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Rheumatol. 24, 61-68.

    'Ongoing immunologic activity after short courses of pulse cyclophosphamide in the NZB/W murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus. ' () 24 J. Rheumatol. : 61 -68.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bálent, P., Kolodzieyski, L. and Hipková, V. (1995): Encephalitozoonosis . an actual disease in rabbits also in Slovakia (in Slovak). Slov. Vet. J. 20, 81-83.

    'Encephalitozoonosis . an actual disease in rabbits also in Slovakia (in Slovak). ' () 20 Slov. Vet. J. : 81 -83.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Binta, M. G., Mushi, E. Z. and Rurangirva, F. R. (1996): Effect of cyclophosphamide on the acquisition of resistance to infestation by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in rabbits. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 63, 7-10.

    'Effect of cyclophosphamide on the acquisition of resistance to infestation by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in rabbits. ' () 63 Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. : 7 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Botha, V. S., Van Dellen, A. F. and Stewart, C. G. (1979): Canine encephalitozoonosis in South Africa. J. South Afr. Vet. Assoc. 50, 135-144.

    'Canine encephalitozoonosis in South Africa. ' () 50 J. South Afr. Vet. Assoc. : 135 -144.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Boumpas, D. T., Chrousos, G. P., Wilder, R. L., Wilder, T. R., Cupps, T. R. and Balow, J. E. (1993): Glucocorticoid therapy for immune-mediated diseases: basic and clinical correlates. Ann. Inter. Med. 119, 1198-1208.

    'Glucocorticoid therapy for immune-mediated diseases: basic and clinical correlates. ' () 119 Ann. Inter. Med. : 1198 -1208.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bradley, J. D., Brandt, K. D. and Katz, B. P. (1989): Infectious complications of cyclophosphamide treatment for vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 32, 45-53.

    'Infectious complications of cyclophosphamide treatment for vasculitis. ' () 32 Arthritis Rheum. : 45 -53.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chalupsk, J., Vávra, J. and Bedrnk, P. (1973): Detection of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Folia Parasit. 20, 281-284.

    'Detection of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. ' () 20 Folia Parasit. : 281 -284.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schmidt, E. C. and Shadduck, J. A. (1984): Mechanisms of resistance to the intracellular protozoan Encephalitozoon cuniculi in mice. J. Immunol. 133, 2712-2719.

    'Mechanisms of resistance to the intracellular protozoan Encephalitozoon cuniculi in mice. ' () 133 J. Immunol. : 2712 -2719.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Steinberg, A. D. (1993): Chlorambucil in the treatment of patients with immune mediated rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum. 36, 325-328.

    'Chlorambucil in the treatment of patients with immune mediated rheumatic diseases. ' () 36 Arthritis Rheum. : 325 -328.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stewart, C. G., Reyers, F. and Snyman, H. (1988): The relationship in dogs between primary renal disease and antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi. J. South Afr. Vet. Assoc. 59, 19-21.

    'The relationship in dogs between primary renal disease and antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi. ' () 59 J. South Afr. Vet. Assoc. : 19 -21.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weber, R., Bryan, R. T., Schwartz, D. A. and Owen, R. L. (1994): Human microsporidial infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7, 426-461.

    'Human microsporidial infections. ' () 7 Clin. Microbiol. Rev. : 426 -461.

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Nov 2020 4 1 0
Dec 2020 2 0 0
Jan 2021 9 0 0
Feb 2021 1 0 0
Mar 2021 4 0 0
Apr 2021 0 0 0
May 2021 0 0 0