View More View Less
  • 1 Department and Clinic of Obstetrics and Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University H-1078 Budapest, István u. 2, Hungary
  • 2 Department and Clinic of Obstetrics and Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University Department of Obstetrics and Reproduction István u. 2. 1078 Budapest
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $836.00

Biodiversity is increasingly threatened by intensive agriculture, environmental pollution, extinction of natural habitats and several other factors. Several mammalian species including ungulates have disappeared or are threatened by extinction. However, ungulates play an important role both in the ecosystem and in the economy. In general, species or breeds are considered endangered if their population does not exceed 1,000 individuals. In these cases conservation programmes should be initiated in order to maintain or even increase their number. This review deals with the possibilities and limitations of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the conservation of ecologically valuable wild, rare and indigenous ungulates. The methods discussed here are artificial insemination, cryopreservation of semen and embryos, embryo recovery and transfer,in vitroproduction of embryos, as well as micromanipulation techniques including sperm injection, assisted hatching and cloning. Some of these procedures are already being exploited in the breeding of farm ungulates, but more basic information about the reproductive patterns of wild, rare and indigenous animal species is needed before the routine use of ARTs.

  • Asher, W., Adams, L., James, W. and Barnes, D. (1988): Artificial insemination of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama): Fixed-time insemination at a synchronized oestrus. Anim. Prod. 47, 487-492.

    'Artificial insemination of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama): Fixed-time insemination at a synchronized oestrus. ' () 47 Anim. Prod. : 487 -492.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bezuidenhout, C., Fourie, F., Meintjes, M., Bornman, M., Bartels, P. and Godke, R. (1995): Comparative epididymal sperm cell motility of African ungulate and equid game species stored at 4 °C. Theriogenology 43, 167.

    'Comparative epididymal sperm cell motility of African ungulate and equid game species stored at 4 °C. ' () 43 Theriogenology : 167.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brem, G., Brenig, B., Muller, M. and Springmann, K. (1989): Ex situ cryoconservation of genomes and genes of endangered cattle breeds by means of modern biotechnological methods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper (76), Rome.

    Ex situ cryoconservation of genomes and genes of endangered cattle breeds by means of modern biotechnological methods , ().

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Buckrell, B., Gartley, C., Mehren, K., Crawshaw, G., Johnson, W., Barker, K., Balke, J., Coghill, C., Challis, J. and Goodrowe, K. (1990): Failure to maintain interspecific pregnancy after transfer of Dall's sheep embryos to domestic ewes. J. Reprod. Fert. 90, 387-394.

    'Failure to maintain interspecific pregnancy after transfer of Dall's sheep embryos to domestic ewes. ' () 90 J. Reprod. Fert. : 387 -394.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Burruel, V., Yanagimachi, R. and Whitten, W. (1996): Normal mice develop from oocytes injected with spermatozoa with grossly misshapen heads. Biol. Reprod. 55, 709-717.

    'Normal mice develop from oocytes injected with spermatozoa with grossly misshapen heads. ' () 55 Biol. Reprod. : 709 -717.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Del Campo, M., Del Campo, C., Adams, G. and Mapletoft, R. (1995): The application of new technologies to South American camelids. Theriogenology 43, 21-30.

    'The application of new technologies to South American camelids. ' () 43 Theriogenology : 21 -30.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dresser, B., Pope, C., Kramer, L., Kuehn, G., Dalhausen, R., Maruska, E., Reece, B. and Thomas, W. (1985): Birth of bongo antelope (Tragelaphus euryceros) to eland antelope (Tragelaphus oryx) and cryopreservation of bongo embryos. Theriogenology 23, 190.

    'Birth of bongo antelope (Tragelaphus euryceros) to eland antelope (Tragelaphus oryx) and cryopreservation of bongo embryos. ' () 23 Theriogenology : 190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Edwards, R. and Brody, S. (1995): Principles and Practice of Assisted Human Reproduction. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

    Principles and Practice of Assisted Human Reproduction , ().

  • Elsden, R., Nelson, L. and Seidel, G. (1978): Superovulating cows with follicle stimulating hormone and pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin. Theriogenology 9, 17-26.

    'Superovulating cows with follicle stimulating hormone and pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin. ' () 9 Theriogenology : 17 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fenessy, P., Asher, G., Beatson, N., Dixson, E., Hunter, J. and Bringans, M. (1994): Embryo transfer in deer. Theriogenology 41, 133-138.

    'Embryo transfer in deer. ' () 41 Theriogenology : 133 -138.

  • Christensen, M., Schmidt, M., Hess, D. and Alak, B. (1993): Oocyte nuclear maturation in vitro in the African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Biol. Reprod. 48 (Suppl. 1), 88-95.

    'Oocyte nuclear maturation in vitro in the African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). ' () 48 Biol. Reprod. : 88 -95.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cseh, S., Kreysing, U., Lucas-Hahn, A. and Niemann, H. (1995): Direct rehydration of IVF bovine embryos frozen in ethylene-glycol. Theriogenology 43, 190.

    'Direct rehydration of IVF bovine embryos frozen in ethylene-glycol. ' () 43 Theriogenology : 190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fenessy, P., Mackintosh, C. and Skackell, G. (1990): Artificial insemination of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Anim. Prod. 51, 613-621.

    'Artificial insemination of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). ' () 51 Anim. Prod. : 613 -621.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garde, J., Landete-Castillejos, T. and Lopez-Saez, A. (1998): Reproductive technologies for nondomestic species and wildlife preservation. AETE Newsletter No. 9, 9-15.

    'Reproductive technologies for nondomestic species and wildlife preservation. ' () 9 AETE Newsletter No. : 9 -15.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gordon, I. (1994): Laboratory Production of Cattle Embryos. CAB Int., Wallingford.

    Laboratory Production of Cattle Embryos , ().

  • Gordon, J. and Talansky, B. (1986): Assisted fertilization by zona drilling: A mouse model for correction of oligospermia. J. Exp. Zool. 239, 347-354.

    'Assisted fertilization by zona drilling: A mouse model for correction of oligospermia. ' () 239 J. Exp. Zool. : 347 -354.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goto, K., Kinoshita, A., Takuma, Y. and Ogawa, K. (1991): Birth of calves after the transfers of oocytes fertilized by sperm injection. Theriogenology 35, 205-221.

    'Birth of calves after the transfers of oocytes fertilized by sperm injection. ' () 35 Theriogenology : 205 -221.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Howard, J., Bush, M., de Vos, V., Schiewe, M., Pursel, V. and Wildt, D. (1986): Influence of cryo-protective diluent on post-thaw viability and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). J. Reprod. Fertil. 78, 295-306.

    'Influence of cryo-protective diluent on post-thaw viability and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). ' () 78 J. Reprod. Fertil. : 295 -306.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hradecky, P., Stover, J. and Stott, G. (1988): Histology of a heifer placentome after interspecies transfer of gaur embryo. Theriogenology 30, 593-604.

    'Histology of a heifer placentome after interspecies transfer of gaur embryo. ' () 30 Theriogenology : 593 -604.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johnston, L. and Lacy, R. (1991): Utilization of sperm banks to maintain genetic diversity in captive populations of wild cattle. Proc. Wild Cattle Symposium, New York, pp. 107-118.

    Utilization of sperm banks to maintain genetic diversity in captive populations of wild cattle , () 107 -118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johnston, L., Parrish, J., Monson, R., Leibfried-Rutledge, L., Susko-Parrish, J., Northey, D., Rutledge, J. and Simmons, L. (1993): Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development in vitro and in vivo in the gaur (Bos gaurus). J. Reprod. Fertil. 100, 131-136.

    'Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development in vitro and in vivo in the gaur (Bos gaurus). ' () 100 J. Reprod. Fertil. : 131 -136.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Karaivanov, C. (1986): Comparative studies on the superovulatory effect of PMSG and FSH in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 26, 51-56.

    'Comparative studies on the superovulatory effect of PMSG and FSH in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). ' () 26 Theriogenology : 51 -56.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kimura, Y. and Yanagimachi, R. (1995): Mouse oocytes injected with testicular spermatozoa or round spermatids can develop into normal offspring. Development 121, 2397-2405.

    'Mouse oocytes injected with testicular spermatozoa or round spermatids can develop into normal offspring. ' () 121 Development : 2397 -2405.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kraemer, D. (1989): Embryo collection in small ruminants. Theriogenology 31, 141-148.

    'Embryo collection in small ruminants. ' () 31 Theriogenology : 141 -148.

  • Kuhholzer, B., Muller, S., Besenfelder, U. and Brem, G. (1997): Endoscopic embryo transfer techniques in sheep. 3. Intrauterine insemination and tubal transfer of embryos. Wiener Tierärztl. Mschr. 84, 14-19.

    'Endoscopic embryo transfer techniques in sheep. 3. Intrauterine insemination and tubal transfer of embryos. ' () 84 Wiener Tierärztl. Mschr. : 14 -19.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lasley, B. and Kirkpatrick, J. (1991): Monitoring ovarian function in captive and free-ranging wildlife by means of urinary and fecal steroids. J. Zoo Wildlife. Med. 22, 23-31.

    'Monitoring ovarian function in captive and free-ranging wildlife by means of urinary and fecal steroids. ' () 22 J. Zoo Wildlife. Med. : 23 -31.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lasley, B., Loskutoff, N. M. and Anderson, B. (1994): The limitation of conventional breeding programs and the need and promise of assisted reproduction in nondomestic species. Theriogenology 41, 119-132.

    'The limitation of conventional breeding programs and the need and promise of assisted reproduction in nondomestic species. ' () 41 Theriogenology : 119 -132.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Leibo, S. and Loskutoff, N. M. (1993): Cryobiology of in vitro derived bovine embryos. Theriogenology 39, 81-94.

    'Cryobiology of in vitro derived bovine embryos. ' () 39 Theriogenology : 81 -94.

  • Li, L., Meintjes, M., Graff, K., Paul, J., Denniston, R. and Godke, R. (1994): In vitro fertilization and development of in vitro matured oocytes aspirated from pregnant mares. Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Equine Reprod. pp. 77-78.

    , , .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Loskutoff, N. M., Bartels, P., Meintjes, M., Godke, R. and Schiewe, M. C. (1995): Assisted reproductive technology in nondomestic ungulates: a model approach to preserving and managing genetic diversity. Theriogenology 43, 3-12.

    'Assisted reproductive technology in nondomestic ungulates: a model approach to preserving and managing genetic diversity. ' () 43 Theriogenology : 3 -12.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Loskutoff, N. M. and Betteridge, K. (1993): Embryo technology in pets and endangered species. In: Lauria, A. and Gandolfi, F. (eds) Embryonic Development and Manipulation in Animal Production: Trends in Research and Application. Portland Press, London, pp. 235-248.

    Embryo technology in pets and endangered species , () 235 -248.

  • Loskutoff, N. M., Greve, T., Betteridge, K. and Leibo, S. (1993): Co-culture conditions and partial zona dissection affect hatching rates of thawed bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. Theriogenology 39, 263.

    'Co-culture conditions and partial zona dissection affect hatching rates of thawed bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. ' () 39 Theriogenology : 263.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Loskutoff, N. M., Ott, J. and Lasley, B. (1983): Strategies for assessing ovarian function in exotic species. J. Zoo Animal Med. 14, 3-12.

    'Strategies for assessing ovarian function in exotic species ' () 14 J. Zoo Animal Med. : 3 -12.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baranyi, M., Bősze, Zs., Buchberger, J. and Krause, I. (1993): Genetic polymorphism of milk protein in Hungarian Spotted and Hungarian Grey Cattle: a possible new genetic variant of β-Lactoglobulin. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 630-636.

    'Genetic polymorphism of milk protein in Hungarian Spotted and Hungarian Grey Cattle: a possible new genetic variant of β-Lactoglobulin. ' () 76 J. Dairy Sci. : 630 -636.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bastos, E., Varejao, M., Chaves, R., Cravador, A., Alves, V. and Guedes-Pinto, H. (1999): Genetic polymorphism of κ-casein gene in Barrosa Portuguese indigenous bovine breed. European Congress on Biotechnology, ECB9/2482. Brussels.

    Genetic polymorphism of κ-casein gene in Barrosa Portuguese indigenous bovine breed , ().

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dixon, E., Hunter, J. and Beatson, N. (1991): Pregnancies following the export of frozen red deer embryos from New Zealand to Australia. Theriogenology 35, 193.

    'Pregnancies following the export of frozen red deer embryos from New Zealand to Australia. ' () 35 Theriogenology : 193.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dorn, C. (1995): Reproductive applications in the American bison (Bison bison). Theriogenology 43, 13-20.

    'Reproductive applications in the American bison (Bison bison). ' () 43 Theriogenology : 13 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dresser, B., Kramer, L. and Dalhausen, R. (1984): Cryopreservation followed by successful transfer of African eland antelope (Taurotragus oryx) embryos. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Animal Reprod. AI 2, 191.

    , , .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uehara, T. and Yanagimachi, R. (1976): Microsurgical injection of spermatozoa into hamster eggs with subsequent transformation of sperm nuclei into male pronuclei. Biol. Reprod. 15, 467-474.

    'Microsurgical injection of spermatozoa into hamster eggs with subsequent transformation of sperm nuclei into male pronuclei ' () 15 Biol. Reprod. : 467 -474.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wakayama, T. and Yanagimachi, R. (1998): Development of normal mice from oocytes injected with freeze-dried spermatozoa. Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 639-642.

    'Development of normal mice from oocytes injected with freeze-dried spermatozoa ' () 16 Nat. Biotechnol. : 639 -642.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wells, D., Misica, P., Forsyth, J., Berg, M., Lange, J., Tervit, H. and Vivanco, H. (1999): The use of adult somatic cell nuclear transfer to preserve the last surviving cow of the Enderby Island cattle breed. Theriogenology 51, 217.

    'The use of adult somatic cell nuclear transfer to preserve the last surviving cow of the Enderby Island cattle breed ' () 51 Theriogenology : 217.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wildt, D. (1991): The role of reproductive biotechnology in wildlife conservation: Problems and challenges. Proc. Soc. Study Theriogenology. pp. 15-22.

  • Meintjes, M., Bartels, P., Bezuidenhout, C., Visser, D., Meintjes, J., Loskutoff, N. M., Barry, D., Fourie, F. and Godke, R. (1995): In vitro fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes recovered from free-ranging zebra in South-Africa. Theriogenology 43, 279.

    'In vitro fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes recovered from free-ranging zebra in South-Africa ' () 43 Theriogenology : 279.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Meintjes, M., Bellow, M., Paul, J., Broussard, J., Li, L., Paccamonti, D., Eilts, B. and Godke, R. (1994): Transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval in cyclic and pregnant horse and pony mares for in vitro fertilization. Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Equine Reprod. pp. 71-72.

  • Monfort, L., Asher, W., Wildt, E., Wood, C., Schiewe, C., Williamson, R., Bush, M. and Rall, F. (1993): Successful intrauterine insemination in Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin) using frozen-thawed spermatozoa. J. Reprod. Fertil. 99, 459-465.

    'Successful intrauterine insemination in Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin) using frozen-thawed spermatozoa ' () 99 J. Reprod. Fertil. : 459 -465.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schiewe, M. C. (1991): Species variation in semen cryopreservation of nondomestic ungulates. Proc. Wild Cattle Symposium, Omaha, pp. 56-64.

    Species variation in semen cryopreservation of nondomestic ungulates. Proc. , () 56 -64.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schiewe, M. C., Bush, M., Phillips, L., Citino, S. and Wildt, D. (1991a): Comparative aspects of estrus synchronization, ovulation induction and embryo cryopreservation in the scimitarhorned oryx, bongo, eland and greater kudu. J. Exp. Zool. 58, 75-88.

    'Comparative aspects of estrus synchronization, ovulation induction and embryo cryopreservation in the scimitarhorned oryx, bongo, eland and greater kudu ' () 58 J. Exp. Zool. : 75 -88.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schiewe, M. C., Bush, M., de Vos, V. and Wildt, D. (1991b): Semen characteristics, sperm freezing and endocrine profiles in free-ranging wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). J. Zoo Wildlife Med. 22, 58-72.

    'Semen characteristics, sperm freezing and endocrine profiles in free-ranging wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) ' () 22 J. Zoo Wildlife Med. : 58 -72.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rátky, J., Brüssow, K., Solti, L., Torner, H. and Sarlós, P. (2000): Ovarian response, embryo recovery and results of embryo transfer in a Hungarian native pig breed. Theriogenology (accepted for publication).

  • Bárándi, Zs., Solti, L., Cseh, S., Varga, Zs., Macháty, Z. and Vajta, G. (1993): Comparison of the in vitro fertilizing ability of sperm from endangered Hungarian Grey bulls. Animal Reprod. Sci. 31, 13-19.

    'Comparison of the in vitro fertilizing ability of sperm from endangered Hungarian Grey bulls. ' () 31 Animal Reprod. Sci. : 13 -19.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Besenfelder, U., Zinovieva, N., Dietrich, E., Solinrey, B., Holtz, W. and Brem, G. (1994): Tubal transfer of goat embryos using endoscopy. Vet. Rec. 135, 480-485.

    'Tubal transfer of goat embryos using endoscopy. ' () 135 Vet. Rec. : 480 -485.

  • Raven, R., Beese, K., Eisner, T., Morin, N., Duncan, T., Hobbs, S., Hodges, J., Rall, W., Colwell, R. and Swings, J. (1992): Biotechnology and genetic resources: United States - Commission of the European Communities Workshop, October 21-22, Airlie, Virginia, USA.

    Biotechnology and genetic resources , ().

  • Reichenbach, H., Wiebke, N., Modl, J., Zhu, J. and Brem, G. (1994): Laparoscopy through the vaginal fornix of cows for the repeated aspiration of follicular oocytes. Vet. Rec. 135, 353-356.

    'Laparoscopy through the vaginal fornix of cows for the repeated aspiration of follicular oocytes ' () 135 Vet. Rec. : 353 -356.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pope, C., Dresser, B., Kuehn, G., Kramer, L. and Gillespie, D. (1988): Live birth of a gaur (Bos gaurus) calf following nonsurgical embryo transfer to a Holstein (Bos taurus) recipient. Theriogenology 29, 289.

    'Live birth of a gaur (Bos gaurus) calf following nonsurgical embryo transfer to a Holstein (Bos taurus) recipient ' () 29 Theriogenology : 289.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pope, C., Gelwicks, E., Burton, M., Reece, R. and Dresser, B. (1991): Nonsurgical embryo transfer in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah): Birth of a live offspring. Zoo Biol. 10, 43-51.

    'Nonsurgical embryo transfer in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah): Birth of a live offspring ' () 10 Zoo Biol. : 43 -51.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Monfort, L., Wemmer, C., Kepler, T., Bush, M., Brown, J. and Wildt, E. (1990): Monitoring ovarian function and pregnancy in the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin) by evaluating urinary steroid metabolite excretion. J. Reprod. Fertil. 88, 271-281.

    'Monitoring ovarian function and pregnancy in the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi thamin) by evaluating urinary steroid metabolite excretion ' () 88 J. Reprod. Fertil. : 271 -281.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pieterse, M., Kappen, K., Kruip, T. and Taverne, M. (1988): Aspiration of bovine oocytes during transvaginal ultrasound scanning of the ovaries. Theriogenology 30, 751-762.

    'Aspiration of bovine oocytes during transvaginal ultrasound scanning of the ovaries ' () 30 Theriogenology : 751 -762.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pope, G., Gelwicks, E., Wachs, K., Keller, G., Maruska, E. and Dresser, B. (1989): Successful interspecies transfer of embryos from the Indian desert cat (Felis silvestris ornata) to the domestic cat (Felis catus). Biol. Reprod. 40, 61-69.

    'Successful interspecies transfer of embryos from the Indian desert cat (Felis silvestris ornata) to the domestic cat (Felis catus) ' () 40 Biol. Reprod. : 61 -69.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pope, C., Johnson, C., McRae, M., Keller, G. and Dresser, B. (1995): In vitro and in vivo development in cat oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection or subzonal insemination. Theriogenology 43, 302.

    'In vitro and in vivo development in cat oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection or subzonal insemination ' () 43 Theriogenology : 302.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Loskutoff, N. M., Raphael, B., Dorn, C., Nemec, L., Calle, P., Petric, A. and Kraemer, D. (1988): Comparative reproductive traits of the okapi and giraffe: Implications for intraspecific and intergeneric embryo transfer. Acta Zool. Path. Antverpiensia 80, 29-42.

    'Comparative reproductive traits of the okapi and giraffe: Implications for intraspecific and intergeneric embryo transfer ' () 80 Acta Zool. Path. Antverpiensia : 29 -42.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Loskutoff, N. M., Raphael, B., Nemec, L., Wolfe, B., Howard, J. and Kraemer, D. (1990): Reproductive anatomy, manipulation of ovarian activity and non-surgical embryo recovery in suni (Neotragus moschatus yuluensis). J. Reprod. Fertil. 88, 521-532.

    'Reproductive anatomy, manipulation of ovarian activity and non-surgical embryo recovery in suni (Neotragus moschatus yuluensis) ' () 88 J. Reprod. Fertil. : 521 -532.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Loskutoff, N. M., Raphael, B., Wolfe, B., French, L., Buice, R., Howard, J., Schiewe, M. and Kraemer, D. (1991): Embryo transfer in small antelope. Proc. Soc. Study Theriogenology. pp. 341-342.

  • Madan, M., Singla, S., Chauhan, M. and Manik, R. (1994): In vitro production and transfer of embryos in buffaloes. Theriogenology 41, 139-144.

    'In vitro production and transfer of embryos in buffaloes ' () 41 Theriogenology : 139 -144.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mann, J. (1988): Full term development of mouse eggs fertilized by a spermatozoa microinjected under the zona pellucida. Biol. Reprod. 38, 1077-1084.

    'Full term development of mouse eggs fertilized by a spermatozoa microinjected under the zona pellucida ' () 38 Biol. Reprod. : 1077 -1084.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McKinnon, A., Tinson, A. and Nation, G. (1994): Embryo transfer in dromedary camels. Theriogenology 41, 145-150.

    'Embryo transfer in dromedary camels ' () 41 Theriogenology : 145 -150.

  • Wildt, D., Seal, U. and Rall, W. (1992a): Genetic resource banks and reproductive technology for wildlife conservation. In: Cloud, J. and Thorgaard, G. (eds) Genetic Conservation of Salmonid Fishes. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, pp. 85-104.

    Genetic resource banks and reproductive technology for wildlife conservation , () 85 -104.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wildt, D., Monfort, S., Donoghue, A., Johnston, L. and Howard, J. (1992b): Embryogenesis in conservation biology - or, how to make an endangered species embryo. Theriogenology 37, 161-184.

    'Embryogenesis in conservation biology - or, how to make an endangered species embryo ' () 37 Theriogenology : 161 -184.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A., McWhir, J., Kind, A. and Campbell, K. (1997): Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810-813.

    'Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells ' () 385 Nature : 810 -813.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schiewe, M. C., Bush, M., Stuart, L. and Wildt, D. (1984): Laparoscopic embryo transfer in domestic sheep: Preliminary study. Theriogenology 22, 675-682.

    'Laparoscopic embryo transfer in domestic sheep: Preliminary study ' () 22 Theriogenology : 675 -682.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Solti, L., Macháty, Z., Bárándi, Zs., Török, M. and Vajta, G. (1992): IVF embryos of known parental origin from the endangered Hungarian Grey cattle breed. Theriogenology 37, 301-162.

    'IVF embryos of known parental origin from the endangered Hungarian Grey cattle breed ' () 37 Theriogenology : 301 -162.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Solti, L., Crichton, E., Loskutoff, N. M. and Cseh, S. (2000): Economical and ecological importance of indigenous livestock and the application of assisted reproduction to their preservation. Theriogenology 53, 149.

    'Economical and ecological importance of indigenous livestock and the application of assisted reproduction to their preservation ' () 53 Theriogenology : 149.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stover, J., Evans, J. and Dolensek, E. (1981): Inter-species embryo transfer from the gaur to domestic Holstein. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Zoo Vet. pp. 122-124.

  • Seidel, G. and Seidel, S. (1981): The Embryo Transfer Industry. In: Brackett, B., Seidel, G., Seidel, S. (eds) New Technologies in Animal Breeding. Academic Press, New York, pp. 41-77.

    The Embryo Transfer Industry , () 41 -77.

  • Shaw, D., Kidson, A., Van Schalkwyk, J., Bartels, P., Loskutoff, N. M., Bezuidenhout, C., Barry, D. and Lishman, A. (1995): In vitro production of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) embryos derived from follicular oocytes and epididymal sperm. Theriogenology 43, 322.

    'In vitro production of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) embryos derived from follicular oocytes and epididymal sperm ' () 43 Theriogenology : 322.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Summers, P., Shephard, A., Hodges, J., Kydd, J., Boyle, M. and Allen, W. (1987): Successful transfer of the embryo of Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii) and Grant's zebra (E. burchelli) to domestic mares (E. caballus). J. Reprod. Fert. 80, 13-20.

    'Successful transfer of the embryo of Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii) and Grant's zebra (E. burchelli) to domestic mare ' () 80 (E. caballus). J. Reprod. Fert. : 13 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Armstrong, D., Looney, C., Lindsey, B., Gonseth, C., Johnson, D., Williams, K., Simmons, L. and Loskutoff, N. M. (1995): Transvaginal egg retrieval and in vitro embryo production in gaur (Bos gaurus) with establishment of interspecies pregnancy. Theriogenology 43, 162.

    'Transvaginal egg retrieval and in vitro embryo production in gaur (Bos gaurus) with establishment of interspecies pregnancy. ' () 43 Theriogenology : 162.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Asher, W., Kraemer, D., Magyar, S., Brunner, M., Moerbe, R. and Giaquinto, M. (1990): Intrauterine insemination of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama) with frozen-thawed semen via laparoscopy. Theriogenology 34, 569-578.

    'Intrauterine insemination of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama) with frozen-thawed semen via laparoscopy. ' () 34 Theriogenology : 569 -578.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yanagimachi, R. (1998): Intracytoplasmic sperm injection experiments using the mouse as a model. Hum. Reprod. 13 (Suppl 1), 87-95.

    'Intracytoplasmic sperm injection experiments using the mouse as a model ' () 13 Hum. Reprod. : 87 -95.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
May 2020 0 4 4
Jun 2020 0 9 8
Jul 2020 8 3 1
Aug 2020 4 0 0
Sep 2020 10 0 0
Oct 2020 11 0 0
Nov 2020 0 0 0