View More View Less
  • 1 Veterinary Medical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $836.00

This paper summarizes the history of and information on bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) from the first isolation to the most recent results. For almost twenty years BoHV-4 has been considered a typical herpes ‘orphan’ virus, which infects several species but causes no illness. The latest experiments revealed the close relationship of this virus with the immune system and other tissues. The virus was even considered as a possible candidate for a vector vaccine. BoHV-4 as a strange herpesvirus has several features which are not characteristic of other herpesviruses, such as several latency sites, persistence in serum, dividing cells necessary for virus replication, and the wide host range. In addition to describing the main features of the virion, replication, clinical signs, nomenclature problems, this review intends to concentrate on the new and strange results coming out from several laboratories worldwide. It is also suggested that because the virus combines several properties of various herpesvirus subfamilies and because of its close relationship with the immune system, it may deserve further attention as a representative of a potentially new genus within the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily.

  • Augsburger, H. R. and Metzler, A. E. (1989): In vitro growth characteristics of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) as revealed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibodies and polyvalent antisera. Arch. Virol. 104, 309321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barahona, H. H., Melendez, L. V., King, N. W., Daniel, M. D., Fraser, C. E. O. and Preville, A. C. (1973): Herpesvirus aotus type 2: A new viral agent from owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). J. Infect. Dis. 127, 171178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartha, A., Fadol, A. M., Liebermann, H., Ludwig, H., Mohanty, S. B., Osorio, F. A., Reed, D. E. Storz, J., Straub, O. C., van derMaaten, M. J. and Wellemans, G. (1987): Problems concerning the Movar type bovine herpesviruses. Intervirology 28, 17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartha, A., Juhasz, M. and Liebermann, H. (1966): Isolation of a bovine herpesvirus from calves with respiratory disease and keratoconjunctivitis. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16, 357358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belak, S. and Palfi, V. (1974): Characterization of a herpesvirus isolated from spontaneously degenerated bovine kidney cell culture. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 24, 249253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broll, H., Buhk, H.-J., Zimmermann, W. and Goltz, M. (1999 a): Structure and function of the prDNA and the genomic termini of the y2-herpesvirus bovine herpesvirus type 4. J. Gen. Virol. 80, 979986.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broll, H., Finsterbush, T., Buhk, H.-J. and Goltz, M. (1999 e): Genetic analysis of the bovine herpesvirus type 4 gene locus for the putative terminase. Virus Genes 19, 243250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bublot, M., Dubuisson, J., Van Bressem, M. J., Danyi, S., Pastoret, P. P. and Thiry, E. (1991): Antigenic and genomic identity between simian herpesvirus aotus type 2 and bovine herpesvirus type 4. J. Gen. Virol. 72, 715719.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bublot, M., Van Bressem, M. F., Thiry, E., Dubuisson, J. and Pastoret, P. P. (1990): Bovine herpesvirus 4 genome: cloning, mapping and strain variation analysis. J. Gen. Virol. 71, 133142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castrucci, G., Frigeri, F., Ferrari, M., Cilli, V., Aldrovendi, V., Rampichini, L. and Gatti, R. (1987): A study of the pathogenesis of bovid herpesvirus-4 in calves. J. Vet. Med. B 34, 473479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, L. Z. and Van Santen, V. L. (1992): Immediate-early and late RNAs in bovine herpesvirus-4-infected cells. Virology 191, 909920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, L. Z. and Van Santen, V. L. (1995): Interaction of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) immediate early 2 gene product with BHV-4 thymidine kinase promoter regulatory region. J. Gen. Virol. 76, 24332445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubuisson, J., Boulanger, D., Bublot, M., Thiry, E. and Pastoret, P. P. (1989): Proteins specified by bovine herpesvirus type 4: structural proteins of the virion and identification of two major glycoproteins by using monoclonal antibodies. J. Gen. Virol. 70, 17431753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubuisson, J., Guillaume, J., Boulanger, D., Thiry, E., Bublot, M. and Pastoret, P. P. (1990): Neutralization of bovine herpesvirus type 4 by pairs of monoclonal antibodies raised against two glycoproteins and identification of antigenic determinants involved in neutralization. J. Gen. Virol. 71, 647653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubuisson, J., Koromyslov, I., Pastoret, P. P. and Thiry, E. (1992): Proteins of bovine herpesvirus type 4 released into the culture medium of productively infected cells: identification of a 135K protein glycoprotein involved in viral attachment. J. Gen Virol. 73, 189194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Edwards, S. and Newman, R. H. (1985): Detection of antibodies to bovid herpesvirus-4 by ELISA. Vet. Microbiol. 10, 149154.

  • Egyed, L. and Bartha, A. (1998): PCR studies on the potential sites for latency of BHV-4 in calves. Vet. Res. Commun. 22, 209216.

  • Egyed, L., Ballagi-Pordany, A., Bartha, A. and Belak, S. (1996): Studies of in vivo distribution of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in the natural host. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34, 10911095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Egyed, L., Berencsi, Gy. and Bartha, A. (1999): Periodic reappearance of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) DNA in the sera of naturally and experimentally infected rabbits and calves. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22, 199206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Egyed, L., Kluge, J. P. and Bartha, A. (1997): Histological studies of bovine herpesvirus type 4 infection in non ruminant species. Vet. Microbiol. 51, 283289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ehlers, B., Buhk, H. J. and Ludwig, H. (1985): Analysis of bovine cytomegalovirus genome structure: Cloning and mapping of the monomeric polyrepetitive DNA unit, and comparison of European and American strains. J. Gen. Virol. 66, 5568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eugster, A. K. (1979): Isolation of bovine herpesvirus III from diarrheic faeces. Vet. Microbiol. 3, 199204.

  • Fabricant, C. G., Gillespie, J. H. and Krook, L. (1971): Intracellular and extracellular mineral crystal formation induced by viral infection of cell cultures. Infect. Immun. 3, 416419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galik, P. K., Van Santen, V. L., Stringfellow, D. A., Bird, R. C., Wright, J. C. and Smith, P. C. (1992): Development of a DNA probe for identification of bovine herpesvirus 4. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54, 653659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Godfroid, J., Czaplicki, G., Kerkhofs, P., Weynants, V., Wellemans, G., Thiry, E. and Letesson, J. J. (1996): Assessment of the cell-mediated immunity in cattle after bovine herpesvirus 4 infection, using an in vitro antigen-specific interferon-y assay. Vet. Microbiol. 53, 133141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goltz, M., Broll, H., Mankertz, A., Weigelt, W., Ludwig, H., Buhk, H. J. and Brochers, K. (1994): Glycoprotein B of bovine herpesvirus type 4: Its phylogenetic relationship to gB equivalents of the herpesviruses. Virus Genes 9, 5359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goyal, S. M. and Naeem, K. (1992): Bovid herpesvirus-4: a review. Vet. Bulletin. 62, 181201.

  • Guo, W. Z., Shen, D. T., Everman, J. F. and Gorham, J. R. (1988): Comparison of an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and a complement-fixation test for the detection of IgG to bovine herpesvirus type 4 (bovine cytomegalovirus). Am. J. Vet. Res. 49, 667670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Homan, E. J. and Easterday, B. C. (1981): Further studies of naturally occurring latent bovine herpesvirus infection. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42, 18111813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • House, J. A., Wilson, T. M., El Nakashly, S., Karim, L. A., Ismail, L., El Danaf, N., Moussa, A. M. and Ayoub, N. N. (1990): The isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus 4 from cattle in Egypt. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 2, 111115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaminjolo, J. S. Jr., Mugera, G. M. and Rosted, A. F. (1972): Isolation of a herpes-type virus from some tumours of bovine origin. Zbl. Vet-med. B 19, 626632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karlin, S., Mocarski, E. S. and Schachtel, G. A. (1994): Molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons. J. Virol. 68, 18861902.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kit, S., Kit, M., Ichimura, H., Crandell, R. and McConnel, S. (1986): Induction of thymidine kinase activity by viruses with group B DNA genomes; bovine cytomegalovirus (bovine herpesvirus 4). Virus Res. 4, 197212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krogman, L. A. and McAdaragh, J. P. (1982): Recrudescence of bovine herpesvirus-5 in experimentally infected calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43, 336338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kruger, J. M., Osborne, C. A., Goyal, S. M., Pomeroy, K. A. and O’Brien, T. D. (1990): Clinicopathologic and pathologic findings of herpesvirus-induced urinary tract infection in conventionally reared cats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 51, 16491655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, T. M., Shi, G. Y., Tsai, C. F., Su, H. J., Guo, Y. L. L. and Wu, H. L. (1997): Susceptibility of endothelial cells to bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4). J. Virol. Methods 63, 219225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, T. M., Shi, G. Y., Jiang, M. J., Tsai, C. F., Hwang, B. J., Hsieh, C. T. and Wu, H. L. (1999): Persistent infection of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in bovine endothelial cell cultures. Vet. Microbiol. 70, 4153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, T. M., Jiang, M. J., Eng, H. L., Shi, G. Y., Lai, L. C., Huang, B. J., Huang, K. Y. and Wu, H. L. (2000): Experimental infection with bovine herpesvirus-4 enhances atherosclerotic process in rabbits. Lab. Invest. 80, 311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lomonte, P., Bublot, M., Pastoret, P. P. and Thiry, E. (1992): Location and gene comparison with thymidine kinase gene of other herpesviruses. Arch. Virol. 127, 327337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lomonte, P., Bublot, M., Van Santen, V., Keil, G. M., Pastoret, P. P. and Thiry, E. (1995): Analysis of bovine herpesvirus 4 genomic regions located outside the conserved gammaherpesvirus gene blocks. J. Gen. Virol. 76, 18351841.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lomonte, P., Bublot, M., Van Santen, V., Keil, G., Pastoret, P. P. and Thiry, E. (1996): Bovine herpesvirus 4: genomic organization and relationship with two other gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and herpesvirus saimiri. Vet. Microbiol. 53, 7989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez, O. J., Galeota, J. A. and Osorio, F. A. (1996): Bovine herpesvirus type-4 (BHV-4) persistently infects cells of the marginal zone of spleen in cattle. Microbial Pathogenesis 21, 4758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luther, P. D., Bradley, P. G. and Haig, D. A. (1971): The isolation and characterization of a herpesvirus from calf kidney cell cultures. Res. Vet. Sci. 12, 496498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCoy, S. B., Mohanty, S. B. and Rockeman, D. D. (1985): Electron microscope autoradiographic study of bovine herpesvirus 4. Zbl. Vet. Med. B 32, 368374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mohanty, S. B., Hammond, R. C. and Lillie, M. G. (1971): A new bovine herpesvirus and its effect on experimentally infected calves. Arch. ges. Virusforsch. 33, 394395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moreno-Lopez, J., Goltz, M., Rehbinder, C., Valsala, K. V. and Ludwig, H. (1989): A bovine herpesvirus (BHV-4) as passenger virus in ethmoidal tumours in Indian cattle. J. Vet. Med. B 36, 481486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naeem, K., Caywood, D. D., Werdin, R. E. and Goyal, S. M. (1990): Evaluation of pregnant rabbits as a laboratory model for bovid herpesvirus-4 infection. Am. J. Vet. Res. 51, 640644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naeem, K., Murtaugh, M. P. and Goyal, S. M. (1991): Tissue distribution of bovid herpesvirus-4 in inoculated rabbits and its detection by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Arch. Virol. 119, 239255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osorio, F. A. and Reed, D. E. (1983): Experimental inoculation of cattle with bovine herpesvirus-4: evidence for a lymphoid-associated persistent infection. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44, 975980.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osorio, F. A., Reed, D. E. and Rock, D. L. (1982): Experimental infection of rabbits with bovine herpesvirus-4: acute and persistent infection, Vet. Microbiol. 7, 503513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osorio, F. A., Rock, D. L. and Reed, D. E. (1985): Studies on the pathogenesis of a bovine cytomegalo-like virus in an experimental host. J. Gen. Virol. 66, 19411951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parks, J. B. and Kendrick, J. W. (1973): The isolation and partial characterization of a herpesvirus from a case of bovine metritis. Arch. ges. Virusforsch. 41, 211215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peterson, R. B. and Goyal, S. M. (1988): Propagation and quantitation of animal herpesviruses in eight cell culture systems. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11, 9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, D. E., Langpap, T. J. and Anson, M. A. (1977): Characterization of herpesviruses isolated from lactating dairy cows with mammary pustular dermatitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 38, 16311634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roizman, B., Desroisers, R. C., Fleckenstein, B., Lopez, C., Minson, A. C. and Studdert, M. J. (1992): The family Herpesviridae: an update. Arch. Virol. 123, 425449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rossiter, P. B., Gumm, I. D., Stagg, D. A., Conrad, P. A., Mukolwe, S., Davies, F. G. and White, H. (1984): Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from African buffaloes (Svncerus caffer). Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 337343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sass, B., Mohanty, S. B. and Hetrick, F. M. (1974): Fluorescent antibody study of a new bovine herpesvirus (strain DN 599). Am. J. Vet. Res. 35, 13431346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen, D. T., Burger, D., Tong, G. Z. and Gorham, J. R. (1992): Molecular cloning and physical mapping of bovine herpesvirus 4 strain DN 599 and comparison with two American field isolates. Arch. Virol. 127, 7587.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thiry, E., Bublot, M., Dubuisson, J., Van Bressem, M.-F., Lequarre, A.-S., Lomonte, P., Vanderplasschen, A. and Pastoret, P.-P. (1992): Molecular biology of bovine herpesvirus type 4. Vet. Microbiol. 33, 7992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Todd, W. J. and Storz, J. (1983): Morphogenesis of a cytomegalovirus from an American bison affected with malignant catarrhal fever. J. Gen. Virol. 64, 10251030.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanderplasschen, A., Bublot, M., Dubuisson, J., Pastoret, P. P. and Thiry, E. (1993): Attachment of the gammaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 is mediated by the interaction of gp8 glycoprotein with heparinlike moieties on the cell surface. Virology 196, 232240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanderplasschen, A., Goltz, M., Lyaku, J., Benarafa, C., Buhk, H. J., Thiry, E. and Pastoret, P. P. (1995): The replication in vitro of the gammaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 is restricted by its DNA synthesis dependence on the S phase of the cell cycle. Virology 213, 328340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Opdenbosch, E., Wellemans, G., Ooms, L. A. A. and Degryse, A. D. A. Y. (1988): BHV-4 (bovine herpesvirus 4) related disorders in Belgian cattle. A study of two problem herds. Vet. Res. Commun. 12, 347353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Santen, V. L. (1993): Characterization of a bovine herpesvirus 4 immediate-early RNA encoding a homolog of the Epstein-Barr virus R transactivator. J. Virol. 67, 773784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Santen, V. L. and Chang, L. Y. (1992): Cloning and mapping of (coRI, HindIII and PstI fragments of bovine herpesvirus 4 (DN-599) genome. Intervirology 34, 4452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, G. H., Bertin, J., Wang, Y., Martin, D. A., Wang, J., Tomaselli, K. J., Armstrong, R. C. and Cohen, J. I. (1997): Bovine herpesvirus 4 BORFE2 protein inhibits fas-and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-induced apoptosis and contains death effector domains shared with other gamma-2 herpesviruses. J. Virol. 71, 89288932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wellenberg, G. J., Van Rooij, E. M. A., Maissan, J. and Van Oirshot, J. T. (1999): The evaluation of a newly developed immunoperoxidase monolayer assay to detect antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4. XIth Int. Congress of Virology, Sydney. Abstract, p. 234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

 

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

  • Impact Factor (2019): 0.991
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.372
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 32
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q2 Veterinary (miscellaneous)
  • Impact Factor (2018): 1.059
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.517
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 30
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Veterinary (miscellaneous)

Language: English

Founded in 1951
Publication: One volume of four issues annually
Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 68.
Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts

     

  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Current Contents: Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences
  • Elsevier Science Navigator
  • Focus On: Veterinary Science and Medicine
  • Global Health
  • Index Medicus
  • Index Veterinarius
  • Medline
  • Science Citation Index
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
  • SCOPUS
  • The ISI Alerting Services
  • Zoological Abstracts

 

Subscribers can access the electronic version of every printed article.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Benkő, Mária

Managing Editor(s): Székely, András

Editorial Board

      Dénes, Béla
      Eszterbauer, Edit
      Fébel, Hedvig
      Fodor, László
      Harrach, Balázs
      Andras Komaromy (USA)
      Peter Massanyi (Slovak Republic)
      Nagy, Béla
      Németh, Tibor
      Neogrády, Zsuzsanna
      Kurt Pfister (Germany)
      Solti, László
      Szabó, József
      Vajdovich, Péter
      Varga, János
      Štefan, Vilĉek (Slovak Republic)
      Vörös, Károly
      Herbert Weissenböck (Austria)
      Zsarnovszky, Attila

ACTA VETERINARIA HUNGARICA
Institute for Veterinary Medical Research
Centre for Agricultural Research
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
P.O. Box 18, H-1581 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: (36 1) 467 4081 (ed.-in-chief) or (36 1) 213 9793 (editor) Fax: (36 1) 467 4076 (ed.-in-chief) or (36 1) 213 9793