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  • 1 Central Veterinary Institute H-1149 Budapest, Tábornok u. 2, Hungary
  • 2 Central Veterinary Institute H-1149 Budapest, Tábornok u. 2, Hungary
  • 3 Central Veterinary Institute H-1149 Budapest, Tábornok u. 2, Hungary
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Because of the rapid development and spread of antimicrobial resistance it is important that a system be established to monitor antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic zoonotic and commensal bacteria of animal origin. Susceptibility testing of bacteria from carcasses and different samples of animal origin has been carried out in veterinary institutes for a long time but by an inconsistent methodology. The disc diffusion method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) was introduced in all institutes in 1997. In order to obtain a coherent view of the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria a computer system was consulted, consisting of a central computer to store all data and some local computers attached to it through the network. At these local measuring stations computers are connected to a video camera, which displays the picture of Petri dishes on the monitor, and inhibition zone diameters of bacteria can be drawn with the mouse by the inspector. The software measures the diameters, evaluates whether or not the bacteria are sensitive, and stores the data. The evaluation is based upon the data of the NCCLS. The central computer can be connected to as many local computers with measuring stations as we wish, so it is suitable for an integrated system for monitoring trends in antimicrobial resistance of bacteria from animals, food and humans, facilitating comparison of the occurrence of resistance for each circumstance in the chain. It depends on the examiners which antibiotics they want to examine. Thirty-two different antibiotic panels were compiled, taking into consideration the active ingredients of medicinal products permitted for veterinary use in Hungary, natural resistance and cross-resistance, the mechanism of resistance and the animal species, i.e. which drugs were recommended for treatment in the given animal species, and the recommendations of the OIE Expert Group on Antimicrobial Resistance. The members of the panels can be changed any time, even during the measuring process. In addition to the inhibition zone diameters of bacteria the database also includes information about bacterial and animal species, the age of animals and the sample or organ where the bacteria are from. Since January 2001 the antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Enterococcus strains isolated from the colons of slaughter cows, pigs and broiler chickens has also been examined. Each of the 19 counties of Hungary submits to the laboratory three tied colon samples from a herd of the above-mentioned animals every month.

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