View More View Less
  • 1 Institute for Veterinary Medicinal Products H-1475 Budapest, P.O. Box 318, Hungary
  • 2 Institute for Veterinary Medicinal Products H-1475 Budapest, P.O. Box 318, Hungary
  • 3 Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University Department of Parasitology and Zoology Budapest, Hungary
  • 4 Institute for Small Animal Research (ISAR) Gödöll', Hungary
  • 5 Institute for Veterinary Medicinal Products Budapest, Hungary
  • 6 Institute for Veterinary Medicinal Products H-1475 Budapest, P.O. Box 318, Hungary
  • 7 Institute for Veterinary Medicinal Products H-1475 Budapest, P.O. Box 318, Hungary
  • 8 Institute for Veterinary Medicinal Products H-1475 Budapest, P.O. Box 318, Hungary
  • 9 Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University Budapest, Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $836.00

An outbreak of the atypical form of myxomatosis struck a rabbit farm in Hungary. The animals had previously been vaccinated with a vaccine containing Shope rabbit fibroma virus strain. The disease appeared in winter when the presence of mosquitoes and fleas is not common. The virus was isolated from an eyelid specimen of a naturally infected rabbit. The surviving animals were observed for four weeks, blood samples were collected and, after euthanasia, organ specimens were also examined by morphological methods including pathology and electron microscopy. Serum samples were examined by virus neutralisation for antibodies. Genetic analysis of the isolated virus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The primers were designed on the basis of the major envelope gene (Env) of the Lausanne reference strain in the GenBank. The viral proteins were examined by SDS-PAGE. The isolated virus (ref. no.: BP04/2001) was able to infect the susceptible animals directly, by contact. The disease was characterised by respiratory symptoms of the upper tracheal tract, conjunctivitis and high mortality by the 11th-14th day. Aerogenic infection with strain BP04/2001 resulted in 100% morbidity among the susceptible animals. Sequencing of the amplified 400-bp-long DNA revealed 97% homology with the Env gene of the Lausanne strain, which proves that strain BP04/2001 is a variant of the Lausanne strain having been enzootic throughout Europe. The live vaccine strain used in Hungary against myxomatosis, which is also a Lausanne-derived strain, protected the animals. According to the protein analysis a protein of 200 kDa in size is not expressed in strain BP04/2001. This is the first report on atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe. The virus spreads by airborne transmission and may cause severe losses in the rabbit population.

  • Moss, B. 1996: Poxviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M. and Howley, P. M. (eds) Fundamental Biology. 3rd ed., Lippincott-Raven Publisher, Philadelphia.

    Poxviridae: The viruses and their replication , ().

  • Marlier, D., Mainil, J., Sulon, J., Beckers, J. F., Linden, A. and Vindevogel, H. 2000: Study of the virulence of five strains of amyxomatous myxoma virus in crossbred New Zealand White/Californian conventional rabbits, with evidence of long-term testicular infection in recovered animals. J. Comp. Pathol. 122, 101-113.

    'Study of the virulence of five strains of amyxomatous myxoma virus in crossbred New Zealand White/Californian conventional rabbits, with evidence of long-term testicular infection in recovered animals. ' () 122 J. Comp. Pathol. : 101 -113.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Széky, A. and Benedek, G. 1969: Histological investigations of skin lesions in myxomatosis of rabbits (in Hungarian, with English abstract). Magyar állatorvosok Lapja 24, 73-80.

    'Histological investigations of skin lesions in myxomatosis of rabbits (in Hungarian, with English abstract). ' () 24 Magyar állatorvosok Lapja : 73 -80.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Verhofstede, C., Fransen, K., Mrissens, D., Verhelst, R., van der Groen, G., Lauwers, S., Zissis, G. and Plum, J. 1996: Isolation of HIV-1 RNA from plasma: evaluation of eight different extraction methods. J. Virol. Methods 60, 155-159.

    'Isolation of HIV-1 RNA from plasma: evaluation of eight different extraction methods. ' () 60 J. Virol. Methods : 155 -159.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vetési, F. 1990: Diseases of the Domestic Rabbit (in Hungarian). Mezogazdasági Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  • Fenner, F. 1994: Myxoma virus. In: Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. (ed.) Virus Infections of Vertebrates. Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam. pp. 59-71.

    Myxoma virus , () 59 -71.

  • Fenner, F. and Ratcliffe, F. N. 1965: Myxomatosis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

    Myxomatosis , ().

  • Joubert, L., Duclos, P. H. and Tuaillon, P. 1982: La myxomatose des garennes dans le Sud-est: la myxomatose amyxomateuse. Rev. Med. Vet. 133, 739-753.

    'La myxomatose des garennes dans le Sud-est: la myxomatose amyxomateuse. ' () 133 Rev. Med. Vet. : 739 -753.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brun, A., Saurat, P., Gilbert, Y., Godart, A. and Bouquet, J. F. 1981: Données actuelles sur l`épidémiologie, la pathogénie et la symptomatologie de la myxomatose. Rev. Med. Vet. 132, 585-590.

    'Données actuelles sur l`épidémiologie, la pathogénie et la symptomatologie de la myxomatose. ' () 132 Rev. Med. Vet. : 585 -590.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chapuis, J. L., Chantal, J. and Bijlenga, G. 1994: Myxomatosis in the sub-antarctic islands of Kerguelen without vectors, thirty years after its introduction. C R. Academical Science III. 317, 174-182.

    'Myxomatosis in the sub-antarctic islands of Kerguelen without vectors, thirty years after its introduction. ' () 317 C R. Academical Science III. : 174 -182.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kerr, P. J. and Best, S. M. 1998: Myxoma virus in rabbits. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 17, 256-268.

    'Myxoma virus in rabbits. ' () 17 Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. : 256 -268.

  • Manninger, R. 1956: Myxomatosis of domestic rabbits (in Hungarian). Magyar állatorvosok Lapja 11, 73-74.

    'Myxomatosis of domestic rabbits (in Hungarian). ' () 11 Magyar állatorvosok Lapja : 73 -74.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marlier, D. and Vindevogel, H. 1996: La myxomatose amyxomateuse: isolement de trois souches en Belgique. Ann. Med. Vet. 140, 343-346.

    'La myxomatose amyxomateuse: isolement de trois souches en Belgique. ' () 140 Ann. Med. Vet. : 343 -346.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marlier, D., Cassart, D., Boucraut-Baralon, C., Coignoul, F. and Vindevogel, H. 1999: Experimental infection of specific pathogen free New Zealand White rabbits with five strains of atypical myxoma virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 121, 369-384.

    'Experimental infection of specific pathogen free New Zealand White rabbits with five strains of atypical myxoma virus. ' () 121 J. Comp. Pathol. : 369 -384.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Benedek, G. 1968: Data on the clinical features of myxomatosis (in Hungarian, with English abstract). Magyar állatorvosok Lapja 23, 329-336.

    'Data on the clinical features of myxomatosis (in Hungarian, with English abstract). ' () 23 Magyar állatorvosok Lapja : 329 -336.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Boucher, S. and Nouaille, L. 2002: Les maladies virales. In: Maladies des lapins. Groupe France Agricole, Paris. pp. 110-117.

  • Arthur, C. P. and Louzis, C. 1988: A review of myxomatosis among rabbits in France. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 65, 937-976.

    'A review of myxomatosis among rabbits in France. ' () 65 Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. : 937 -976.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marshall, I. D. 1959: The influence of ambient temperature on the course of myxomatosis in rabbits. J. Hyg. Camb. 57, 484-497.

    'The influence of ambient temperature on the course of myxomatosis in rabbits. ' () 57 J. Hyg. Camb. : 484 -497.

    • Search Google Scholar