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  • 1 Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate Tábornok u. 2 H-1149 Budapest Hungary
  • 2 CEVA PHYLAXIA Veterinary Biologicals Co. Ltd Budapest Hungary
  • 3 Hungarian Academy of Sciences Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research Budapest Hungary
  • 4 Szent István University Faculty of Veterinary Science Budapest Hungary
  • 5 National Centre for Epidemiology Division of Virology Budapest Hungary
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In 2010, two novel porcine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs with influenza-like illness in Hungarian swine herds. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed that they shared molecular features with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains, which emerged globally during 2009. The PB2, HA and NA genes contained unique amino acid changes compared to the available new H1N1 influenza virus sequences of pig origin. Furthermore, the investigated strains could be separated with respect to parallel amino acid substitutions affecting the polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) gene, supporting the proposed complementarities between these proteins, all required for the viral fitness. Molecular characterisation of two Hungarian human pandemic H1N1 isolates was also performed, so that we could compare contemporaneous strains of different host species origins. Shared molecular motifs in various genes of animal and human influenza strains suggested that the Hungarian porcine strains could have originated from humans through direct interspecies transmission. This study is among the few that support the natural human-to-pig transmission of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

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