View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ataturk University, 25170 Erzurum, Turkey
  • 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ataturk University, 25170 Erzurum, Turkey
  • 3 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ataturk University, 25170 Erzurum, Turkey
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $836.00

It is known that inflammatory organ damages due to various agents, such as microorganisms including mycoplasmas, lead to oxidative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as an antimicrobial agent, and arginase decreases proinflammatory cytokine release. There are very few studies on arginase activity, NO level and oxidative stress status in mycoplasmal infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte arginase activity, plasma NO level and oxidative stress status in sheep with contagious agalactia. The study material consisted of 10 healthy sheep and 14 sheep with contagious agalactia characterised by mastitis, arthritis and keratoconjunctivitis. Erythrocyte arginase activity, plasma NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant capacity (TOC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were measured. Significant decreases in erythrocyte arginase activity and plasma TAC level (P < 0.001), and significant increases in plasma NO, MDA and TOC levels (P < 0.001) were found in the diseased sheep as compared with the healthy animals. This study suggests that contagious agalactia may cause oxidative stress due to increased plasma MDA and TOC levels and decreased plasma TAC levels, and that the decrease in erythrocyte arginase activity and increase in plasma NO level may contribute to the elimination of mycoplasmal agents causing contagious agalactia.

  • Bergonier, D., Berthelot, X. and Poumarat, F. (1997): Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: Current knowledge concerning epidemiology, diagnosis and control. Rev. Sci. Tech. 16, 848873.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogdan, C. (2001): Nitric oxide and the immune response. Nat. Immunol. 2, 907916.

  • Castro-Alonso, A., De la Fe, C., Espinosa de los Monteros, A., Rodriguez, F., Andrada, M., Poveda, J. B. and Herraez, P. (2010): Chronological and immunohistochemical characterization of the mammary immunoinflammatory response in experimental caprine contagious agalactia. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 136, 4354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castro-Alonso, A., Rodriguez, F., De la Fe, C., Espinosa de los Monteros, A., Poveda, J.B., Andrada, M. and Herraez, P. (2009): Correlating the immune response with the clinicalpathological course of persistent mastitis experimentally induced by Mycoplasma agalactiae in dairy goats. Res. Vet. Sci. 86, 274280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chakravortty, D. and Hensel, M. (2003): Inducible nitric oxide synthase and control of intracellular bacterial pathogens. Microbes Infect. 5, 621627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chambaud, I., Wroblewski, H. and Blanchard, A. (1999): Interactions between mycoplasma lipoproteins and the host immune system. Trends Microbiol. 7, 493499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, E. D., Chan, J. and Schluger, N. W. (2001): What is the role of nitric oxide in murine and human host defense against tuberculosis? Current knowledge. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 25, 606612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chopra-Dewasthaly, R., Baumgartner, M., Gamper, E., Innerebner, C., Zimmermann, M., Schilcher, F., Tichy, A., Winter, P., Jechlinger, W., Rosengarten, R. and Spergser, J. (2012): Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycobacteria agalactiae pathogenesis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 66, 307322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Das, P., Lahiri, A., Lahiri, A. and Chakravortty, D. (2010): Modulation of the arginase pathway in the context of microbial pathogenesis: A metabolic enzyme moonlighting as an immune modulator. PLoS Pathog. 6, e1000899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erel, O. (2004): A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clin. Biochem. 37, 277285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erel, O. (2005): A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status. Clin. Biochem. 38, 11031111.

  • Fairbanks, V. F. and Klee, G. G. (1986): Biochemical aspects of hematology. In: Tiets, N. W. (ed.). Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp. 15321534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geyer, J. W. and Dabich, D. (1971): Rapid method for determination of arginase activity in tissue homogenates. Anal. Biochem. 39, 412417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gomez-Martin, A., Amores, J., Paterna, A. and De la Fe, C. (2013): Contagious agalactia due to Mycoplasma spp. in small dairy ruminants: Epidemiology and prospects for diagnosis and control. Vet. J. 198, 4856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hedge, S., Hedge, S., Spergser, J., Brunthaler, R., Rosengarten, R. and Chopra-Dewasthaly, R. (2014): In vitro and in vivo cell invasion and systemic spreading of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the sheep infection model. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 304, 10241031.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaeger, T., Budde, H., Flohe, L., Menge, U., Singh, M., Trujillo, M. and Radi, R. (2004): Multiple thioredoxin-mediated routes to detoxify hydroperoxides in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 423, 182191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, L. A. (1987): Urea. In: Pesce, A. J. and Kaplan, L. A. (eds) Methods in Clinical Chemistry. The CV Mosby Company, Toronto. pp. 2227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kızıl, O., Ozdemir, H., Karahan, M. and Kızıl, M. (2007): Oxidative stress and alterations of antioxidant status in goats naturally infected with Mycoplasma agalactiae. Rev. Med. Vet. 158, 326330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumar, A., Rahal, A., Chakraborty, S., Verma, A. K. and Dhama, K. (2014): Mycoplasma agalactiae, an etiological agent of contagious agalactia in small ruminants: A review. Vet. Med. Int. 2014, 286752. doi: 10.1155/2014/286752. Epub 2014 July 3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luiking, Y. C., Engelen, M. P. and Deutz, N. E. (2010): Regulation of nitric oxide production in health and disease. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 13, 97104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lykkesfeldt, J. and Svendsen, O. (2007): Oxidants and antioxidants in disease: Oxidative stress in farm animals. Vet. J. 173, 502511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacMicking, J., Xie, Q. W. and Nathan, C. (1997): Nitric oxide and macrophage function. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 15, 323350.

  • Mori, M. (2007): Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and arginine recycling. J. Nutr. 137, 1616S1620S.

  • Morris, D., Khurasany, M., Nguyen, T., Kim, J., Guilford, F., Mehta, R., Gray, D., Saviola, B. and Venketaraman, V. (2013): Glutathione and infection. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830, 33293349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicholas, R. A. J. (2002): Improvements in the diagnosis and control of diseases of small ruminants caused by mycoplasmas. Small Rum. Res. 45, 145149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pieters, J. (2008): Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the macrophage: maintaining a balance. Cell Host Microbe 3, 399407.

  • Placer, Z. A., Cushman, L. and Johnson, B. C. (1966): Estimation of products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biological fluids. Anal. Biochem. 16, 359364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qualls, J. E., Neale, G., Smith, A. M., Koo, M. S., DeFreitas A. A., Z hang, H., Kaplan, G., Watowich, S. S. and Murray, P. J. (2010): Arginine usage in mycobacteria-infected macrophages depends on autocrine-paracrine cytokine signaling. Sci. Signal. 3, 135, ra62. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2000955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radostits, O. M., Gay, C. C., Hinchcliff, K. W. and Constable, P. D. (2006): Veterinary Medicine. A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Pigs and Horses. 10th edition. Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh, London, New York.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott, P. R. (2007): Contagious Agalactia. Sheep Medicine. Manson Publishing/The Veterinary Press.

  • Shearer, J. D., Richards, J. R., Mills, C. D. and Caldwell, M. D. (1997): Differential regulation of macrophage arginine metabolism: a proposed role in wound healing. Am. J. Physiol. 272, E181E190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, G. and Morris, S. M. Jr. (1998): Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond. Biochem. J. 336, 117.

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2020 0 2 2
Jul 2020 3 2 4
Aug 2020 5 0 0
Sep 2020 18 0 0
Oct 2020 46 0 0
Nov 2020 44 0 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0