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  • 1 University of Veterinary Science, Department and Clinic for Production Animals, H-2225 Üllő, Dóra major, Hungary
  • 2 MTA-SZIE Large Animal Clinical Research Group, Dóra major, Üllő, Hungary
  • 3 Institute of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary
  • 4 Prograg Agrárcentrum Kft., Ráckeresztúr–Lászlópuszta, Hungary
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The authors monitored the postpartum period during the first seven weeks after calving at a Holstein-Friesian dairy farm in Hungary. Calvings occurred between 2013 and 2015 in three periods from June to November each year (n = 314). Data were collected from the farm record and ultrasonographic examinations were performed between 22 to 28 and 43 to 49 days in milk (DIM), respectively. The animals were followed until successful artificial insemination (AI), i.e. until becoming pregnant or until culling, but at most at 365 DIM. The prevalence of dystocia, twin calving, stillbirth rate and retained fetal membranes (RFM) was 23.2%, 3.8%, 3.5%, and 34.4%, respectively. Altogether 38.9% of the cows (n = 122) had bacterial complications of involution in the first 49 DIM. The prevalence of Grade 2 clinical (puerperal) metritis (CM) was 20.1% within 5 DIM, 10.5% between 6 to 10 DIM and 13.1% from 11 to 20 DIM, while 9.9% of the cows had clinical endometritis (CEM) between 21 and 28 DIM and 1.3% of the cows between 42 and 49 DIM, respectively. Pyometra was diagnosed in 1% of the cows between 21 and 28 DIM and 0.3% between 42 to 49 DIM, respectively. About 80% (80.6%) of the cows were inseminated at least once (n = 253). The success rate of the first AI was 26.9% (n = 68). Dystocia, twin calving, RFM, CM, CEM and cyclicity had no significant effect on the days between calving and first AI, however, according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis stillbirth significantly increased the number of days from calving to first AI (P = 0.039). According to the Kaplan- Meier analysis dystocia, twin calving, stillbirth, RFM, and cyclicity had no effect on the days open. In cows with CM developed within 5 DIM or with CEM diagnosed between 21 and 28 DIM the number of days open significantly decreased (P = 0.009 and P = 0.007, respectively), which confirms the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of uterine diseases. Similar surveys should be conducted to discover the risk factors for reproductive diseases in order to decrease the reproductive losses in dairy farms.

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