The aim of the present study was to determine asprosin levels in cows, the relationship of this hormone with postpartum disorders and β-hydroxybutyric acid, and also the potential of asprosin to be a marker for postpartum diseases. The study was designed as a two-stage trial. In the first stage, blood asprosin and β-hydroxybutyric acid levels of 20 healthy Simmental cows aged 3–4 years were measured at the time of calving, and on days 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 postpartum. In the second stage, 200 cows were divided into two groups: (1) healthy (n = 100) and (2) diseased (placental retention, hypocalcaemia, metritis, lameness, abomasal displacement, mastitis; n = 100); asprosin and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations of the blood were assessed on day 15 postpartum. In conclusion, the asprosin level was found to be at measurable levels in cows, and a negative correlation with β-hydroxybutyric acid was found. According to these findings, the data obtained from this study could be used for the prevention, control and treatment of some postpartum disorders associated with ketosis and for developing novel hypotheses concerning the actions of this hormone. It was concluded that further studies are required to reveal the associations between asprosin and postpartum disorders.
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