View More View Less
  • 1 Laboratório de Diagnóstico Patológico Veterinário, Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, Brazil
  • 2 Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA), Belém, Brazil
  • 3 Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil
  • 4 Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, Brazil
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $836.00

Abstract

The clinical and pathological findings of a case of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) from the northern region of Brazil are reported. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included apathy, prostration, dyspnoea, and loss of appetite. Treatment with penicillin was attempted, but the animal died within five days of the onset of clinical signs. Microscopically, there was acute inflammation in the liver, spleen, and lungs associated with necrosis and a few cysts and extracytoplasmic tachyzoites, with a morphology compatible with Toxoplasma gondii. Tissue sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry that confirmed T. gondii as the aetiological agent. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in B. variegatus.

  • Antoniassi, N. A. B., Juffo, G. D., Santos, A. S., Pescador, C. A., Corbellini, L. G. and Driemeier, D. (2013): Causes of bovine abortion diagnosed at the veteirnary pathology section of the UFRGS between 2003 and 2011 [in Portuguese]. Pesqui. Vet. Bras. 33 , 155160.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carme, B., Aznar, C., Motard, A., Demar, M. and De Thoisy, B. (2002): Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in noncarnivorous free-ranging neotropical mammals in French Guiana. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2, 1117.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Díaz-Ayala, N., Hidalgo-Hermoso, E., Cabello-Araya, C. and Carvalho-Chaigneau, F. (2016): Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a Patagonia mara (Dolichotis patagonum) in captivity. Braz. J. Vet. Parasitol. 25, 523526.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diniz, L. S. M. and Oliveira, P. M. A. (1999): Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 30, 7680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P. (2010): Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans. 2nd edition. CRC Press, New York.

  • Dubey, J. P. and Carpenter, J. L. (1993): Histologically confirmed clinical toxoplasmosis in cats: 100 cases (1952–1990). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 203, 15561566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P. and Lappin, M. R. (2006): Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis. In: Greene, C. E. (ed.) Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd edition. Saunders, St. Louis. pp. 755775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubey, J. P., Schlafer, D. H., Urban, J. F. and Lindsay, D. S. (1990): Lesions in fetal pigs with transplacentally-induced toxoplasmosis. Vet. Pathol. 27, 411418.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fayyad, A., Kummerfeld, M., Davina, I., Wohlsein, P., Beineke, A., Baumgärtner, W. and Puff, C. (2016): Fatal systemic Toxoplasma gondii infection in a red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), a Swinhoe’s striped squirrel (Tamiops swinhoei) and a New World porcupine (Erethizontidae sp.). J. Comp. Pathol. 154, 263267.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garcia-Bocanegra, I., Dubey, J. P., Martínez, F., Vargas, A., Cabézon, O., Zorrilla, I., Arenas, A. and Almeria, S. (2010): Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Vet. Parasitol. 167, 3642.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardiner, C. H., Fayer, R. and Dubey, J. P. (1998): Apicomplexa, Toxoplasma and hammondia. In: Gardiner, C. H., Fayer, R. and Dubey, J. P. (eds) An Atlas of Protozoan Parasites in Animal Tissues. 2nd edition. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC. pp. 5356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herder, V., van de Velde, N., Kristensen, J. H., van Elk, C., Peters, M., Kilwinski, J., Schares, G., Siebert, U. and Wohlsein, P. (2015): Fatal disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection in a captive harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). J. Comp. Pathol. 153, 357362.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, D. E., Chirukandoth, S. and Dubey, J. P. (2005): Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 6, 4161.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lainson, R., Braga, R. R., Souza, A. A. A., Povoa, M. M., Ishikawa, E. A. Y. and Silveira, F. T. (1989): Leishmania (Viannia) shawi sp n., a parasite of monkey, sloths and procyonids in Amazon, Brazil. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 64, 200207.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lainson, R. and Shaw, J. J. (1975): Pneumocystis and Histoplasma infections in wild animals from Amazon region of Brazil. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69, 505508.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lainson, R. and Shaw, J. J. (1982): Coccidia of Brazilian edentates: Eimeria cyclopei new species from the silky anteater Cyclopes didactylus and Eimeria choloepi new species from the two-toed sloth Choloepus didactylus. Syst. Parasitol. 4, 269278.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loureiro, E. C. B. (1985): Occurrence of Salmonella in wild edentates in the Amazon region of Brazil. Rev. Latinoam. Microbiol. 27, 3134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miles, M. A., Arias, J. R., Valente, S. A. S., Naiff, R. D., Souza, A. A., Povoa, M. M., Lima, J. A. N. and Cedillos, R. A. (1983): Vertebrate hosts and vectors of Trypanosoma rangeli in Amazon basin of Brazil. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32, 12511259.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Minervino, A. H. H., Cassinelli, A. B. M., Souza, A. J. S., Alves, M. M., Soares, M. C. P., Ferreira, D. A. C., Pereira, W. L. A. and Gennari, S. M. (2017): Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive non-human primates in Amazon region, Brazil. J. Med. Primatol. 46, 343346.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ochoa-Amaya, J. E., Ciuoderis-Aponte, K. A., Lim, A., Bolin, S. and Langohr, I. (2012): Systemic toxoplasmosis in a captive red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). Int. J. Morphol. 30, 7076.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallés, C. J., Prats, N., López, S., Domingo, M., Marco, A. J. and Morán, J. F. (1997): Epizootic disseminated toxoplasmosis in captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Vet. Pathol. 34, 17.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, J. J. and Lainson, R. (1973): Toxoplasmosis of the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus, in Brazil. J. Parasitol. 59, 206207.

  • Silva, J. C. R., Ogassawara, S., Adania, C. H., Ferreira, F., Gennari, S. M., Dubey, J. P. and Ferreira-Neto, J. S. (2001): Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. 102, 217224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Túry, E., Costa Messias, A., Belák, K. and Gimeno, E. J. (2001): Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus). J. Comp. Pathol. 125, 228231.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wetzel, R. (1985): The identification and distribution of recent Xenarthra (Edentata). In: Montgomery, G. G. (ed.) The Evolution and Ecology of Sloths, Armadillos, and Vermilinguas. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. pp. 546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2020 0 0 0
Oct 2020 0 0 0
Nov 2020 0 0 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0
Jan 2021 0 0 0
Feb 2021 46 7 5
Mar 2021 13 0 0