hydrogeologically closed Carpathian Basin
particular importance in the salinization/alkalization processes. In the
poorly-drained low-lying areas the capillary flow transports high amounts of
water soluble salts from the shallow, „stagnant” groundwater with high salt
concentration and unfavourable sodium-carbonate(bicarbonate) type ion
composition to the overlying soil horizons. Due to the strongly alkaline soil
solution, the Ca and Mg salts (mostly carbonates and bicarbonates) are not
soluble and Na
became absolutely predominant in the migrating soil
solution which leads to high ESP even at relatively low salt concentration.
saturation of heavy-textured soils with high amount of
expanding clay minerals results in unfavourable physical-hydrophysical
extreme moisture regime
of these soils, which are their
main ecological constrains and the limiting factors of their fertility,
productivity and agricultural utility. The simultaneous hazard of waterlogging
or overmoistening, and drought sensitivity in extensive lowland areas,
sometimes in the same places within a short period, necessitates a precise,
“double function” soil moisture control against their harmful
ecological/economical/social consequences. Most of the environmental constrains
(including salinity/alkalinity/sodicity) can be efficiently controlled:
prevented, eliminated, or - at least - moderated. But this needs permanent care
and proper actions: adequate soil and water conservation practices based on a
comprehensive soil/land degradation assessment. It includes continuous
registration of facts and changes (monitoring); exact and quantitative knowledge
on the existing soil processes, their influencing factors and mechanisms.
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Agrokémia és Talajtan
2021 Volume 70
Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.