Our data verified the
relationship between meteorological factors and the fluctuation of the
groundwater level. The rate of evaporation dominantly affected the rise and
depth of the groundwater level. It is characteristic for the study site that
there is an inverse relationship between the elevation of the groundwater
observation wells and the depth of groundwater, and the difference between the
levels of groundwater in the separate wells reflected the differences in the
elevation between the wells. Our observations refuted our previous assumptions,
as in the wells not only the concentration of salts changed but also the
chemical type of the water. This can be attributed with great probability to
the lateral flow of the groundwater, which is caused by the vertical
fluctuation, but can be caused by other geological factors as well. We reached
the conclusion that the vertical and sometimes lateral movement of the
groundwater affects the development of soils in a given area. It means that the
reason behind the mosaic-like appearance of the soil cover of a given area can
be searched in the local differences of the chemical composition of the
groundwater, which is a major factor of the spatial variability of the salt
accumulation of soils. The observations and analytical results point to that
the soils of the study site have developed under the effect of fluctuating
groundwater and the elevation is a dominant factor of the spatial variability
of the soil salt accumulation. The level of groundwater, the flow of groundwater
and its composition show relationship with the surface elevation, and their
effect is modified by the geological stratification, which results in a
variable appearance of soil salt accumulation and native vegetation.
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Agrokémia és Talajtan
2021 Volume 70
Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.