The first grown deep-rooting crop, maize in 1991 and
sunflower in 1998 did not reveal any yield loss on the contaminated soil. The
crops responding most sensitively to As were peas, winter wheat and winter
barley. In the 4
year of the trial the peas practically died out
on the highest As level. The “total” As
(digested with cc. HNO
+ cc. H
to 70-80% of the As added to the ploughed layer 4 years earlier. The NH
+ EDTA soluble As fractions revealed great fluctuations during the sampling
time. In the first 4 years the ratio of As detectable in the ploughed layer in
this form ranged between 12 and 30%, while in 2000 between 10 and 13%. On the
basis of deep profile sampling, it was established that As displayed no
significant vertical movement after 10 years, using
-acetate + EDTA method (Lakenen
& Erviö, 1974). The concentration
of As, as a rule of thumb, declined in the direction
from root-shoot-leaves-straw-grain in grain crops. The mobility of As is
limited within the soil-plant system at this site. Even on the heavily loaded
soil, the amount of As in the whole above-ground biomass remained negligible,
usually below 5-10 mg As/kg dry matter. Under such conditions, the remediation
of soil contaminated with higher loads would theoretically take thousands of
years in the case of As via plant uptake. The transfer coefficient,
expressing the total straw/soil As concentration by barley, had a value of 0.02.
As does not seem to be a very dangerous contaminant either to soil, plants or
groundwater. Extreme loads, however, caused phytotoxicity in some crops and
resulted in products unfit for animal or human consumption. Soil life was also
damaged. Higher As loads decreased nodule formation by green peas, and the
endomycorrhizal symbiosis was hindered as well.
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Agrokémia és Talajtan
2021 Volume 70
Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
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