Author: G. Hadi 1
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  • 1 Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Martonvásár, Hungary
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Several generations of maize breeders contributed to the establishment of genetic resources in Eastern Central Europe by developing open-pollinated varieties, inbred maize hybrids and parental lines successfully grown on large areas and differing from those found in the North American Corn Belt and in other regions of Europe. In some cases they used unusual methods or used known methods in an unorthodox fashion. The Caribbean Flints brought to Hungary from Spain by the Turks in the 16th century played an important role in the development of the Eastern Central Europe genetic resources and dominated Hungarian maize production for nearly four hundred years. In the early 19th century these genetic stocks of Caribbean origin were supplemented by Andean popcorn (Chutucuno Chico, Chutucuno Grande), introduced into Hungary from Italy for human consumption and export purposes and to a lesser extent by Northern Flints (Pennsylvania 8-row). Under the influence of American maize exhibitions in the 19th century, Southern Dents (especially Gourdseed, but also Shoepeg, Hickory King and Tuxpan) and Corn Belt Dents (Queen of the Prairie, Iowa Goldmine, Leaming, and to a lesser extent Funk Yellow Dent) gained ground. In Eastern Central Europe dent varieties were late maturing, so they were crossed, primarily with early-maturing hard flints, and also with early variants of the Caribbean type Old Hungarian Yellow Flint, in order to produce new varieties, which then dominated maize production in the first half of the 20th century. In the early years of hybrid maize breeding, the breeders relied greatly on local, productive, adapted sources. As the result of hybrid maize breeding in Eastern Central Europe, two distinct gene pools developed, which it is thought could contribute to a further increase in maize yield averages through an improvement in genetic variability. These two gene pools are the Ruma and Mindszentpuszta (MYD) heterosis sources. At least 30 lines of Ruma origin and 19 of MYD origin have been successfully used in the development of commercial hybrids. From the point of view of breeding early flint × dent hybrids, the European early multi-rowed hard flints, which developed locally, independently of the American Northern Flints, could also be of interest. Less significant varieties and lines that were grown successfully at one time or another could be used as genetic reserves for the development of new variations. The paper will discuss the varieties popular between 1880 and 1983, providing more detailed data on 13 open-pollinated varieties, 2 variety hybrids, 41 inbred hybrids and 40 successful lines.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Language English
Russian
German
French
Size  
Year of
Foundation
1950
Publication
Programme
ceased
Volumes
per Year
 
Issues
per Year
 
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0238-0161 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2527 (Online)

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