View More View Less
  • 1 Punjab Agricultural University Department of Soils Ludhiana Punjab India
Restricted access

Awareness of the environmental aspects of the quality of crop production has increased in recent decades, leading to renewed interest in organics such as crop residues, green manures and organic manures. The effect of organics on urea transformation was investigated by conducting a laboratory incubation experiment in alluvial clay loam soil (Typic Ustifluvents) at 33±1°C with two moisture levels (1:1 soil:water ratio and field capacity). The rate of urea hydrolysis decreased as the time of incubation increased and the disappearance of urea N was associated with a corresponding increase in the (NH 4 + + NO 3 )-N content in soils treated with crop residues (rice straw and wheat straw), organic manures (poultry manure and farmyard manure) and green manures (cowpea and sesbania). In untreated soil, the time taken for the complete hydrolysis of the applied urea (200 μg urea N g −1 soil) was more than 96 h at both the moisture levels, whereas in amended soils it was completed in 48 h. The rate of urea hydrolysis was more rapid at field capacity than at the 1:1 soil:water ratio. Urea hydrolysis was higher in sesbaniatreated soils, followed by cowpea, poultry manure, farmyard manure, rice straw and wheat straw at both the moisture levels. At field capacity, 85.5% urea was hydrolysed in sesbania-treated soil as compared to 32% in untreated soil after 24 hours of incubation, while at the 1:1 soil:water ratio the corresponding values were 81.5 and 27.5%. Urea hydrolysis followed first order reaction kinetics at both the moisture levels.

  • Agehara, S., Warneke, D. D. (2005): Soil moisture and temperature effects on nitrogen release from organic nitrogen sources. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 69 , 1844–1855.

    Warneke D. D. , 'Soil moisture and temperature effects on nitrogen release from organic nitrogen sources ' (2005 ) 69 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. : 1844 -1855.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aulakh, M. S., Singh, B. (1997): Nutrient losses and fertilizer N efficiency in irrigated porous soils. Nutrient Cycl. Agroecosys. , 47 , 1–16.

    Singh B. , 'Nutrient losses and fertilizer N efficiency in irrigated porous soils ' (1997 ) 47 Nutrient Cycl. Agroecosys. : 1 -16.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aulakh, M. S., Khera, T. S., Doran, J. W., Bronson, K. F. (2001): Managing crop residue with green manure, urea and tillage in rice-wheat rotation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 65 , 820–827.

    Bronson K. F. , 'Managing crop residue with green manure, urea and tillage in rice-wheat rotation ' (2001 ) 65 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. : 820 -827.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Boggs, L. C., Pikul, J. L. Jr., Vigil, M. F., Reidell, W. E. (2000): Soil mineralization influenced by crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 64 , 2038–2045.

    Reidell W. E. , 'Soil mineralization influenced by crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization ' (2000 ) 64 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. : 2038 -2045.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bremner, J. M., Keeney, D. R. (1966): Determination and isotope ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in the soils. 3. Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate and nitrite by extraction-distillation method. Soil Sci., Soc. Am. Proc. , 30 , 577–582.

    Keeney D. R. , 'Determination and isotope ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in the soils. 3. Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate and nitrite by extraction-distillation method ' (1966 ) 30 Soil Sci., Soc. Am. Proc. : 577 -582.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Collins, H. P., Rasmussen, P. E., Douglas, C. L. (1992): Crop rotation and residue management effect on soil carbon and microbial biomass dynamics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 56 , 783–788.

    Douglas C. L. , 'Crop rotation and residue management effect on soil carbon and microbial biomass dynamics ' (1992 ) 56 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. : 783 -788.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Day, P. R. (1965): Particle fractionation and particle size analysis. pp. 595–624. In: Page, A. L. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis . American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

    Day P. R. , '', in Methods of Soil Analysis , (1965 ) -.

  • Frankenberger, W. J., Johnson, J. B. Jr., Nelson, C. O. (1983): Urease activity in sewage sludge amended soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. , 15 , 543–549.

    Nelson C. O. , 'Urease activity in sewage sludge amended soils ' (1983 ) 15 Soil Biol. Biochem. : 543 -549.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ghosh, P. K., Bandopadhyay, K. K., Mishra, A. K., Subba, R. A. (2004): Balanced fertilization for maintaining soil health and sustainable agriculture. Fertil. News , 49 , 13–24.

    Subba R. A. , 'Balanced fertilization for maintaining soil health and sustainable agriculture ' (2004 ) 49 Fertil. News : 13 -24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Khind, C. S., Garg, A., Bajwa, M. S. (1991): Effect of sesbania, rice straw and preincubation on urea hydrolysis in wetland soil. International Rice Research Newsletter , 16 (2), 18.

    Bajwa M. S. , 'Effect of sesbania, rice straw and preincubation on urea hydrolysis in wetland soil ' (1991 ) 16 International Rice Research Newsletter : 18 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mulvaney, R. L., Bremner, J. M. (1979): A modified diacetylmonoxime method for colorimetric determination of urea and soil extracts. Commun. Soil Sci. Plan. , 10 , 1163–1170.

    Bremner J. M. , 'A modified diacetylmonoxime method for colorimetric determination of urea and soil extracts ' (1979 ) 10 Commun. Soil Sci. Plan. : 1163 -1170.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Panda, D. (2005): Chemistry of nitrogen transformation in submerged soils and scientific management of urea fertilizer for higher rice productivity. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. , 53 , 500–513

    Panda D. , 'Chemistry of nitrogen transformation in submerged soils and scientific management of urea fertilizer for higher rice productivity ' (2005 ) 53 J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. : 500 -513.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Parr, J. E., Papenduck, R. I. (1978): Factors affecting the decomposition of crop residues by microorganisms. pp. 101–129. In: Oschwald, W. R. (ed.), Crop Residue Management Systems . American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

    Papenduck R. I. , '', in Crop Residue Management Systems , (1978 ) -.

  • Pratt, P. F. (1982): Potassium. pp. 225–246. In: Page, A. L., Miller, R. H., Keeney, D. R. (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis . Part II. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

  • Reddy, S. M., Chhonkar, P. K. (1991): Urease activity in soils and flood water as influenced by regulatory chemicals and oxygen stress. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. , 39 , 84–88.

    Chhonkar P. K. , 'Urease activity in soils and flood water as influenced by regulatory chemicals and oxygen stress ' (1991 ) 39 J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. : 84 -88.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saharawat, K. L. (1980): Kinetics of urea hydrolysis in soil. Fertil. News , 25 , 12–13.

    Saharawat K. L. , 'Kinetics of urea hydrolysis in soil ' (1980 ) 25 Fertil. News : 12 -13.

  • Saini, P., Bajwa, M. S., Khind, C. S. (1994): Effect of decomposition period of added organic matter on urease activity and urea hydrolysis in flooded alkaline soil. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. , 42 , 471–473.

    Khind C. S. , 'Effect of decomposition period of added organic matter on urease activity and urea hydrolysis in flooded alkaline soil ' (1994 ) 42 J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. : 471 -473.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sankhayan, S. D., Shukla, U. C. (1976): Rates of urea hydrolysis in five soils of India. Geoderma , 16 , 171–178.

    Shukla U. C. , 'Rates of urea hydrolysis in five soils of India ' (1976 ) 16 Geoderma : 171 -178.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Singh, B. (1990): Kinetics of urea hydrolysis and nitrification in some soils of Punjab . M.Sc Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

    Singh B. , '', in Kinetics of urea hydrolysis and nitrification in some soils of Punjab , (1990 ) -.

  • Singh, B., Bajwa, M. S. (1986): Studies on urea hydrolysis in salt affected soils. Fertil. Res. , 8 , 231–240.

    Bajwa M. S. , 'Studies on urea hydrolysis in salt affected soils ' (1986 ) 8 Fertil. Res. : 231 -240.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Subbiah, B. V., Asija, G. L. (1956): A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. Curr. Science , 25 , 259–260.

    Asija G. L. , 'A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils ' (1956 ) 25 Curr. Science : 259 -260.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vigil, M. F., Kissel, D. E. (1991): Equation for estimating the amount of mineralization from crop residues. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 55 , 757–761.

    Kissel D. E. , 'Equation for estimating the amount of mineralization from crop residues ' (1991 ) 55 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. : 757 -761.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wali, P., Kumar, V., Singh, J. P. (2003): Effect of soil type, exchangeable sodium percentage, water content and organic amendments on urea hydrolysis in some tropical Indian soils. Aust. J. Soil Res. , 41 , 1171–1176.

    Singh J. P. , 'Effect of soil type, exchangeable sodium percentage, water content and organic amendments on urea hydrolysis in some tropical Indian soils ' (2003 ) 41 Aust. J. Soil Res. : 1171 -1176.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Walkley, A., Black, I. A. (1934): An estimation of the Degtjaseff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. , 37 , 29–38.

    Black I. A. , 'An estimation of the Degtjaseff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method ' (1934 ) 37 Soil Sci. : 29 -38.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Watanabe, F. S., Olsen, S. R. (1965): Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and sodium bicarbonate extractant from soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. , 29 , 677–678.

    Olsen S. R. , 'Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and sodium bicarbonate extractant from soils ' (1965 ) 29 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. : 677 -678.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Nov 2020 2 0 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0
Jan 2021 3 0 0
Feb 2021 0 0 0
Mar 2021 0 0 0
Apr 2021 0 0 0
May 2021 0 0 0