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  • 1 Government Degree College Usta Mohammad Balochistan Pakistan
  • | 2 Sindh University National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry Jamshoro Pakistan
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This article describes an improvement in the modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure employed for heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in untreated domestic waste-water sewage sludge collected from different cities in Pakistan.The BCR sequential extraction protocol requires 16 h for each step, whereas in the present work optimum recoveries of all heavy metals were attained in 10 h/step. The validity of the proposed BCR sequential extraction procedure was checked using certified reference material (BCR 483). Various parameters such as time interval (2–16 h) and sample mass (0.2–1.0 g) were studied to achieve optimum recovery of the heavy metals studied. The extracted analytes were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum recovery of heavy metals from the certified reference material and from experimental samples was achieved at a sample mass of 0.4 g, while the time required for extraction on a mechanical shaker at 30 rpm was found to be 26–32 h. The sequence of easily available (acid-exchangeable) heavy metals was determined as Cd<Zn<Ni<Cr<Pb<Cu. With the exception of Cd the dominant fractions of the heavy metals were associated with organic matter, while 31.0 and 47.8% of Cd was present in acid-soluble and reducible forms, respectively. A lixiviation test (DIN 38414-S4) was used to evaluate the leaching of heavy metals from the domestic waste-water sewage sludge used for agricultural purposes.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Language English
Russian
German
French
Size  
Year of
Foundation
1950
Publication
Programme
ceased
Volumes
per Year
 
Issues
per Year
 
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia   
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0238-0161 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2527 (Online)

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