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  • 1 Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Martonvásár Hungary
  • 2 Northwest A&F University Yangling Shaanxi P. R. China
  • 3 University of Tuscia Viterbo Italy
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Among the factors which determine yield reliability an important role is played by disease resistance. One of the breeding aims in the Martonvásár institute is to develop wheat varieties with resistance to major diseases. The winter wheat varieties bred in Martonvásár are examined in artificially inoculated nurseries and greenhouses for resistance to economically important pathogens. The effectiveness of designated genes for resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust has been monitored over a period of several decades. None of the designated major resistance genes examined in greenhouse tests is able to provide complete resistance to powdery mildew; however, a number of leaf rust resistance genes provide full protection against pathogen attack (Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr35). In the course of marker-assisted selection, efficient resistance genes (Lr9, Lr24, Lr25 and Lr29) have been incorporated into Martonvásár wheat varieties. The presence of Lr1, Lr10, Lr26, Lr34 and Lr37 in the Martonvásár gene pool was identified using molecular markers. New sources carrying alien genetic material have been tested for powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance. Valuable Fusarium head blight resistance sources have been identified in populations of old Hungarian wheat varieties. Species causing leaf spots (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum) have gradually become more frequent over the last two decades. Tests on the resistance of the host plant were begun in Martonvásár four years ago and regular greenhouse tests on seedlings have also been initiated.

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