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  • 1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8645, USA
  • | 2 Department of Food Technology, Kalecik High School, University of Ankara 06870 Kalecik, Ankara, Turkey
  • | 3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ankara Tando?an 06100 Ankara, Turkey
  • | 4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ankara Tando?an 06100 Ankara, Turkey
  • | 5 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ankara Tando?an 06100 Ankara, Turkey
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98 Lactococcus lactis strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Turkey tested against 60 lactococcal lytic phages to determine their resistance levels. While 82 L. lactis strains were sensitive against lactic phages at different levels, 16 L. lactis strains showed resistance to all phages tested. Types of phage resistance among 16 L. lactis strains were identified as phage adsorption inhibition in eight strains, restriction/modification in six strains and abortive infection (heat sensitive phage resistance) in two strains, using three broad-spectrum phages Fpll 98-32, Fpld 67-42 and Fpld 67-44.