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  • 1 Hokkaido Sapporo Okadama High School Biology Club 2-chome, Kitaokadama 1-jo, Higashi-ku Sapporo 007-0881 Japan
  • | 2 Hokkaido Science Education Center Biology Laboratory 7-chome, Miyanomori 4-jo, Chuo-ku Sapporo 064-0954 Japan
  • | 3 Sapporo Medical University Department of Physiology, School of Medicine Mimami 1-jo, Nishi 17-chome, Chuo-ku Sapporo 060-8556 Japan
  • | 4 Tokushima Bunri University Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1314-1 Shido Sanuki 769-2193 Japan
  • | 5 University of Calgary Hotchkiss Brain Institute 3330 Hospital Dr. NW Calgary AB Canada T2N 4N1
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The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis , can locomote on its back utilizing the surface tension of the water. We have called this form of movement ‘back-swimming’. In order to perform this behavior, the snail must flip itself over on its back so that its foot is visible from above. Little is known about the mechanism of this back-swimming. As a first step for the elucidation of this mechanism, we measured the speed of back-swimming of Lymnaea at the different times of the day. They back-swam significantly faster in the morning than just before dark. These data are consistent with our earlier findings on circadian-timed activity pattern in Lymnaea. Lymnaea appear to secrete a thin membrane-like substance from their foot that may allow them to back-swim. To confirm the existence of this substance and to examine whether this substance is hydrophobic or hydrophilic, we applied a detergent onto the foot during back-swimming. A single drop of 1% Tween 20 drifted Lymnaea away that were still kept at the water surface. These results suggest that Lymnaea secrete a hydrophobic substance from their foot that floats to the water surface allowing Lymnaea to back-swim.

  • Chono, K., Fujito, Y., Ito, E. (2002) Non-ocular dermal photoreception in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis . Brain Res. 951 , 107–112.

    Ito E. , 'Non-ocular dermal photoreception in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis ' (2002 ) 951 Brain Res. : 107 -112.

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  • Wagatsuma, A., Sugai, R., Chono, K., Azami, S., Hatakeyama, D., Sadamoto, H., Ito, E. (2004) The early snail acquires the learning, comparison of scores for conditioned taste aversion between morning and afternoon. Acta Biol. Hung. 55 , 149–155.

    Ito E. , 'The early snail acquires the learning, comparison of scores for conditioned taste aversion between morning and afternoon ' (2004 ) 55 Acta Biol. Hung. : 149 -155.

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Editorial Board

      Csányi, Vilmos (Göd)
      Dudits, Dénes (Szeged)
      Falus, András (Budapest)
      Fischer, Ernő (Pécs)
      Gábriel, Róbert (Pécs)
      Gulya, Károly (Szeged)
      Gulyás, Balázs (Stockholm)
      Hajós, Ferenc (Budapest)
      Hámori, József (Budapest)
      Heszky, László (Gödöllő)
      Hideg, Éva (Szeged)
      E. Ito (Sanuki)
      Janda, Tibor (Martonvásár)
      Kavanaugh, Michael P. (Missoula)
      Kása, Péter (Szeged)
      Klein, Éva (Stockholm)
      Kovács, János (Budapest)
      Brigitte Mauch-Mani (Neuchâtel)
      Nässel, Dick R. (Stockholm)
      Nemcsók, János (Szeged)
      Péczely, Péter (Gödöllő)
      Roberts, D. F. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)
      Sakharov, Dimitri A. (Moscow)
      Singh, Meharvan (Fort Worth)
      Sipiczky, Mátyás (Debrecen)
      Szeberényi, József (Pécs)
      Székely, György (Debrecen)
      Tari, Irma (Szeged)
      Vágvölgyi, Csaba (Szeged),
      L. Zaborszky (Newark)


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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Language English
Year of
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Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0236-5383 (Print)
ISSN 1588-256X (Online)