View More View Less
  • 1 Sfax Faculty of Science Department of Life Sciences, Animal Physiology Laboratory BP 1171 3000 Sfax Tunisia
  • | 2 CHU Habib Bourguiba of Sfax Nuclear Medicine Service 3029 Sfax Tunisia
Restricted access

The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of selenium (Se) on hypothyroidism induced by methimazole (MMI) in lactating rats and their pups. Rats were randomly divided into four groups of six each: group I served as a negative control which received standard diet; group II received orally MMI (250 mg L −1 ); group II received both MMI (250 mg L −1 , orally) and Se (0.5 mg/kg of diet); group IV served as a positive control and received Se (0.5 mg Na 2 SeO 3 /kg of diet). Treatments were started from the 14th day of pregnancy until postnatal day 14. In the MMI-exposed group, the body weight of 14-day-old pups diminished compared to controls; besides, a hypertrophy of the thyroid glands was observed. Co-administration of Se through the diet restored these parameters to near normal values. In the MMI-treated group, thyroid iodine contents and plasma thyroid hormone levels significantly decreased, while plasma TSH levels increased in pups and their mothers. These biochemical modifications corresponded histologically to closed follicles, increased vascularity and a reduction in colloid volume. Co-treatment with Se ameliorated these parameters. We concluded that the supplementation of Se in diet had beneficial effects on hypothyroidism during a critical period of life.

  • Aboul-Enein, H. Y., Al-Badr, A. A. (1979) Methimazole. In: Forey, K. (ed.), Analytical Profiles of Drug Substance . Academic Press, New York 18, pp. 351–371.

    Al-Badr A. A. , '', in Analytical Profiles of Drug Substance , (1979 ) -.

  • Aletrari, M., Kanari, P., Partassides, D., Loizou, E. (1998) Study of the british pharmacopeia method on methimazole (thiamazole) content in carbimazole tablets. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 16 , 785–792.

    Loizou E. , 'Study of the british pharmacopeia method on methimazole (thiamazole) content in carbimazole tablets ' (1998 ) 16 J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. : 785 -792.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ampong, B., Honda, H., Kogo, H. (2002) Effect of hypothyroidism on β-adrenoreceptor-mediated relaxation in the rat thoracic aortae: A time-dependent study. Vascul. Pharmacol. 38 , 149–155.

    Kogo H. , 'Effect of hypothyroidism on β-adrenoreceptor-mediated relaxation in the rat thoracic aortae: A time-dependent study ' (2002 ) 38 Vascul. Pharmacol. : 149 -155.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anan, Y., Ogra, Y., Somekawa, L., Suzuki, K. T. (2009) Effects of chemical species of selenium on maternal transfer during pregnancy and lactation. Life Sci. 84 , 888–893.

    Suzuki K. T. , 'Effects of chemical species of selenium on maternal transfer during pregnancy and lactation ' (2009 ) 84 Life Sci. : 888 -893.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aragão, C. N., Souza, L. L., Cabanelas, A., Oliveira, K. J., Pazos-Moura, C. C. (2007) Effect of experimental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on serum adiponectin. Metab. Clin. Exper. 56 , 6–11.

    Pazos-Moura C. C. , 'Effect of experimental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on serum adiponectin ' (2007 ) 56 Metab. Clin. Exper. : 6 -11.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Archimbaud, Y., Grillion, G., Poncy, J. L., Masse, R. (1992) 75 Se transfer via placenta and milk, distribution and retention in fetal, young and adult rat. Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 41 , 147–151.

    Masse R. , '75Se transfer via placenta and milk, distribution and retention in fetal, young and adult rat ' (1992 ) 41 Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry : 147 -151.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bandyopadhyay, U., Biswas, K., Banerjee, R. K. (2002) Extrathyroidal actions of antithyroid thionamides. Toxicol. Lett. 128 , 117–127.

    Banerjee R. K. , 'Extrathyroidal actions of antithyroid thionamides ' (2002 ) 128 Toxicol. Lett. : 117 -127.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Beaufrère, B., Bresson, J. L., Briend, A., Ghisolfi, J., Goulet, O., Navarro, J., Putet, G., Ricour, C., Rieu, D., Turck, D., Vidailhet, M. (2000) La nutrition iodée chez l’enfant. Arch. Pediatr. 7 , 66–74.

    Vidailhet M. , 'La nutrition iodée chez l’enfant ' (2000 ) 7 Arch. Pediatr. : 66 -74.

  • Beckett, C. J., Arthur, J. R. (1994) Hormone-nuclear receptor interactions in health and disease. The iodothyronine deiodinases and 5′-deiodination. Baillieres Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 8 , 285–304.

    Arthur J. R. , 'Hormone-nuclear receptor interactions in health and disease. The iodothyronine deiodinases and 5′-deiodination ' (1994 ) 8 Baillieres Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. : 285 -304.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ben Hamida, F., Soussia, L., Guermazi, F., Rebai, T., Zeghal, N. (2001) Effets de deux antithyroïdiens (propyltiouracile et perchlorate) sur la fonction thyroïdienne de la souris en période d’allaitement. Ann. Endocrinol. 62 , 446–453.

    Zeghal N. , 'Effets de deux antithyroïdiens (propyltiouracile et perchlorate) sur la fonction thyroïdienne de la souris en période d’allaitement ' (2001 ) 62 Ann. Endocrinol. : 446 -453.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bouaziz, H., Soussia, L., Guermazi, F., Zeghal, N. (2005) Fluoride-induced thyroid proliferative changes and their reversal in female mice and their pups. Fluoride 38 , 185–192.

    Zeghal N. , 'Fluoride-induced thyroid proliferative changes and their reversal in female mice and their pups ' (2005 ) 38 Fluoride : 185 -192.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carrasco, N. (1993) Iodide transport in the thyroid gland. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 154 , 65–82.

    Carrasco N. , 'Iodide transport in the thyroid gland ' (1993 ) 154 Biochim. Biophys. Acta : 65 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Colzani, R. M., Alex, S., Fang, S. L., Stone, S., Braverman, L. E. (1999) Effects of iodine repletion on thyroid morphology in iodine and/or selenium deficient rat term fetuses, pups and mothers. Biochimie 81 , 485–491.

    Braverman L. E. , 'Effects of iodine repletion on thyroid morphology in iodine and/or selenium deficient rat term fetuses, pups and mothers ' (1999 ) 81 Biochimie : 485 -491.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Council of European Communities (1986) Council instructions about the protection of living animals used in scientific investigations. Official Journal of the European Communities (JO 86/609/CEE) L358, pp. 1–18.

  • Dorea, J. G. (2002) Iodine nutrition and breast feeding. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 16 , 207–220.

    Dorea J. G. , 'Iodine nutrition and breast feeding ' (2002 ) 16 J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. : 207 -220.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dussault, J. H., Ruel, J. (1987) Thyroid hormones and brain development. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 49 , 321–334.

    Ruel J. , 'Thyroid hormones and brain development ' (1987 ) 49 Annu. Rev. Physiol. : 321 -334.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fetoui, H., Bouaziz, H., Mahjoubi-Samet, A., Soussia, L., Guermazi, F., Zeghal, N. (2006) Food restriction induced thyroid changes and their reversal after refeeding in female rats and their pups. Acta Biol. Hung. 57 , 391–402.

    Zeghal N. , 'Food restriction induced thyroid changes and their reversal after refeeding in female rats and their pups ' (2006 ) 57 Acta Biol. Hung. : 391 -402.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fishbeck, K. L., Rasmussen, K. M. (1987) Effect of repeated cycles on maternal nutritional status, lactational performance and litter growth in ad libitum-fed and chronically food-restricted rats. J. Nutr. 117 , 1967–1975.

    Rasmussen K. M. , 'Effect of repeated cycles on maternal nutritional status, lactational performance and litter growth in ad libitum-fed and chronically food-restricted rats ' (1987 ) 117 J. Nutr. : 1967 -1975.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gabe, M. (1968) Techniques histologiques . Masson & Cie, Paris.

    Gabe M. , '', in Techniques histologiques , (1968 ) -.

  • Ghorbel, H., Fetoui, H., Mahjoubi, A., Guermazi, F., Zeghal, N. (2008) Thiocyanate effects on thyroid function of weaned mice. C. R. Biol. 331 , 262–271.

    Zeghal N. , 'Thiocyanate effects on thyroid function of weaned mice ' (2008 ) 331 C. R. Biol. : 262 -271.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Golstein, J., Corvilain, B., Lamy, F., Paquer, D., Dumont, J. E. (1988) Effects of a selenium deficient diet on thyroid function of normal and perchlorate treated rats. Acta Endocrinol. 118 , 495–502.

    Dumont J. E. , 'Effects of a selenium deficient diet on thyroid function of normal and perchlorate treated rats ' (1988 ) 118 Acta Endocrinol. : 495 -502.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hotz, C. S., Fitzpatrick, D. W., Trick, K. D., L’Abbé, M. R. (1997) Dietary iodine and selenium interact to affect thyroid hormone metabolism of rats. J. Nutr. 127 , 1214–1218.

    L’Abbé M. R. , 'Dietary iodine and selenium interact to affect thyroid hormone metabolism of rats ' (1997 ) 127 J. Nutr. : 1214 -1218.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Köhrle, J. (1999) The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland. Biochimie 81 , 527–533.

    Köhrle J. , 'The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland ' (1999 ) 81 Biochimie : 527 -533.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Koornstra, J. J., Kerstens, M. N., Hoving, J., Visscher, K. J., Schade, H. J., Gort, H. B. W., Leemhuis, M. P. (1999) Clinical and biochemical changes following 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism in patients not pretreated with antithyroid drugs. Neth. J. Med. 55 , 215–221.

    Leemhuis M. P. , 'Clinical and biochemical changes following 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism in patients not pretreated with antithyroid drugs ' (1999 ) 55 Neth. J. Med. : 215 -221.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mahjoubi-Samet, A., Fetoui, H., Soussia, L., Guermazi, F., Zeghal, N. (2005) Dimethoate effects on thyroid function in suckling rats. Ann. Endocrinol. 66 , 96–104.

    Zeghal N. , 'Dimethoate effects on thyroid function in suckling rats ' (2005 ) 66 Ann. Endocrinol. : 96 -104.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mandel, S. J., Cooper, D. S. (2001) The use of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy and lactation. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 , 2354–2359.

    Cooper D. S. , 'The use of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy and lactation ' (2001 ) 86 J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. : 2354 -2359.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marchant, B., Alexander, W. D. (1972) The thyroid accumulation, oxidation and metabolic fate of 35 S-methimazole in the rat. Endocrinology 91 , 747–756.

  • Marchant, B., Brownlie, B. E., Hart, D. M., Horton, P. W., Alexander, W. D. (1977) The placental transfer of propylthiouracil, methimazole and carbimazole. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45 , 1187–1193.

    Alexander W. D. , 'The placental transfer of propylthiouracil, methimazole and carbimazole ' (1977 ) 45 J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. : 1187 -1193.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Miyazaki, K., Watanabe, C., Mori, K., Yoshida, K., Ohtsuka, R. (2005) The effects of gestational arsenic exposure and dietary selenium deficiency on selenium and selenoenzymes in maternal and fetal tissues in mice. Toxicology 208 , 357–365.

    Ohtsuka R. , 'The effects of gestational arsenic exposure and dietary selenium deficiency on selenium and selenoenzymes in maternal and fetal tissues in mice ' (2005 ) 208 Toxicology : 357 -365.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Porter, T. E. (2005) Regulation of pituitary somatotroph differentiation by hormones of peripheral endocrine glands. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 29 , 52–62.

    Porter T. E. , 'Regulation of pituitary somatotroph differentiation by hormones of peripheral endocrine glands ' (2005 ) 29 Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. : 52 -62.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rock, M. J., Kincaid, R. L., Carstens, G. E. (2001) Effects of prenatal source and level of dietary selenium on passive immunity and thermometabolism of newborn lambs. Small Ruminant Res. 40 , 129–138.

    Carstens G. E. , 'Effects of prenatal source and level of dietary selenium on passive immunity and thermometabolism of newborn lambs ' (2001 ) 40 Small Ruminant Res. : 129 -138.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rosebrough, R. W., Russell, B. A., McMurtry, J. P. (2006) Studies on doses of methimazole (MMI) and its administration regimen on broiler metabolism. Comp. Biochem. Phys. A 143 , 35–41.

    McMurtry J. P. , 'Studies on doses of methimazole (MMI) and its administration regimen on broiler metabolism ' (2006 ) 143 Comp. Biochem. Phys. A : 35 -41.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roy, G., Das, D., Mugesh, G. (2007) Bioinorganic chemistry aspects of the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by anti-hyperthyroid drugs. Inorganica Chimica Acta 360 , 303–316.

    Mugesh G. , 'Bioinorganic chemistry aspects of the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by anti-hyperthyroid drugs ' (2007 ) 360 Inorganica Chimica Acta : 303 -316.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sandell, E. B., Kolthoff, I. M. (1937) Microdetermination of iodine by a catalytic method. Microchem. Acta 1 , 9–25.

    Kolthoff I. M. , 'Microdetermination of iodine by a catalytic method ' (1937 ) 1 Microchem. Acta : 9 -25.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schwartz, H. L., Ross, M. E., Oppenheimer, J. H. (1997) Lack of effect of thyroid hormone on late fetal rat brain development. Endocrinology 138 , 3119–3124.

    Oppenheimer J. H. , 'Lack of effect of thyroid hormone on late fetal rat brain development ' (1997 ) 138 Endocrinology : 3119 -3124.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, A. M., Picciano, M. F. (1986) Evidence for increased selenium requirement for the rat during pregnancy and lactation. J. Nutr. 116 , 1068–1079.

    Picciano M. F. , 'Evidence for increased selenium requirement for the rat during pregnancy and lactation ' (1986 ) 116 J. Nutr. : 1068 -1079.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Soussia, L., Ben Hamida, F., Guermazi, F., Zeghal, N. (2004) Induction et réversibilité d’action du thiocyanate sur la fonction thyroïdienne chez le rat en période d’allaitement. Ann. Endocrinol. 65 , 451–458.

    Zeghal N. , 'Induction et réversibilité d’action du thiocyanate sur la fonction thyroïdienne chez le rat en période d’allaitement ' (2004 ) 65 Ann. Endocrinol. : 451 -458.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tazebay, U. H., Wapnir, I. L., Levy, O., Dohan, O., Zuckier, L. S., Zhao, Q. H., Deng, H. F., Amenta, P. S., Fineberg, S., Pestell, R. G., Carrasco, N. (2000) The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer. Nat. Med. 6 , 871–878.

    Carrasco N. , 'The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer ' (2000 ) 6 Nat. Med. : 871 -878.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Thiel, R., Fowkes, S. W. (2007) Down syndrome and thyroid dysfunction: Should nutritional support be the first-line treatment? Med. Hypotheses 69 , 809–815.

    Fowkes S. W. , 'Down syndrome and thyroid dysfunction: Should nutritional support be the first-line treatment? ' (2007 ) 69 Med. Hypotheses : 809 -815.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Van Doorn, J., Roelfsema, F., Van Der Heide, D. (1983) The effects of propylthiouracil and methimazole on the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to 3,5,3-triiodothyronine in athyreotic thyroxinemaintained rats. Acta. Endocrinol. 103 , 509–520.

    Heide D. , 'The effects of propylthiouracil and methimazole on the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to 3,5,3-triiodothyronine in athyreotic thyroxinemaintained rats ' (1983 ) 103 Acta. Endocrinol. : 509 -520.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zagrodzki, P., Szmigiel, H., Ratajczak, R., Szybinski, Z., Zachwieja, Z. (2000) The role of selenium in iodine metabolism in children with goiter. Environ. Health Perspect. 108 , 67–71.

    Zachwieja Z. , 'The role of selenium in iodine metabolism in children with goiter ' (2000 ) 108 Environ. Health Perspect. : 67 -71.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zimmermann, M. B. (2008) Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 22 , 81–92.

    Zimmermann M. B. , 'Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations ' (2008 ) 22 J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. : 81 -92.

    • Search Google Scholar