View More View Less
  • 1 University of Kaposvár Department of Botany and Plant Production, Faculty of Animal Science Guba S. u. 40 H-7400 Kaposvár Hungary
  • 2 University of Pécs Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science Ifjúság u. 6 H-7624 Pécs Hungary
Restricted access

The cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner), which migrated in the Carpathian-basin from Mediterraneum in the last decades, is becoming an increasingly serious problem for maize producers in Hungary. In several regions the damage it causes has reached the threshold of economic loss, especially in the case of the sweet maize cultivation. The aim of the research was to determine the changing of ears weights and in-kernel accumulation and alteration in grain as a function of cotton bollworm mastication.Our investigation confirmed that there is an in-kernel and protein pattern change of maize grain by cotton bollworm. Our results proved the significant damaging of each part of ears by cotton bollworm masticating (the average weight loss of ears: 13.99%; the average weight loss of grains: 14.03%; the average weight loss of cobs: 13.74%), with the exception of the increasing of the grain-cob ratio. Our examinations did not prove the water loss — that is the “forced maturing” — caused by the damage. Decreasing of raw fat (control: 2.8%; part-damaged: 2.6%; damaged: 2.4%) and starch content (control: 53.1%; part-damaged: 46.6%; damaged: 44.7%) were registered as a function of injury. In contrast, the raw protein content was increased (control: 4.7%; part-damaged: 5.3%; damaged: 7.4%) by maize ear masticating. The most conspicuous effect on protein composition changing was proved by comparison of damaged grain samples by SDS PAGE. Increased amounts of 114, 50, 46 and 35 kDa molecular mass proteins were detected which explained the more than 50% elevation of raw protein content. The statistical analysis of molecular weights proved the protein realignment as a function of the pest injuries, too.

  • Blackmer, J. L., Byrne, D. N. (1999) The effect of Bemisia tabaci on amino acid balance in Cucumis melo. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 93, 313–317.

    Byrne D. N. , 'The effect of Bemisia tabaci on amino acid balance in Cucumis melo ' (1999 ) 93 Entomol. Exp. Appl. : 313 -317.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Breiteneder, H., Radauer, C. A. (2004) Classification of plant food allergens. J. Allergy Clin. Immun. 113, 821–830.

    Radauer C. A. , 'Classification of plant food allergens ' (2004 ) 113 J. Allergy Clin. Immun. : 821 -830.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bohn, M., Kreps, R. C., Klein, D., Melchinger, A. E. (1999) Damage and grain yield losses caused by European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in early maturing European maize hybrids. J. Econ. Entomol. 92, 723–731.

    Melchinger A. E. , 'Damage and grain yield losses caused by European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in early maturing European maize hybrids ' (1999 ) 92 J. Econ. Entomol. : 723 -731.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Čamprag, D., Bača, F. (1995) Diabrotica virgifera (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae); A new pest of maize in Yugoslavia. Pestic. Sci. 45, 291–292.

    Bača F. , 'Diabrotica virgifera (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae); A new pest of maize in Yugoslavia ' (1995 ) 45 Pestic. Sci. : 291 -292.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Čamprag, D., Sekulic, R., Kereši, T., Bača, F. (2004) Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hbn.) and Measures of Integrated Pest Management. Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, p. 183.

    Bača F. , '', in Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hbn.) and Measures of Integrated Pest Management , (2004 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csermely, P. (2000) Stress Proteins. Ancient Protection Mechanism of Our Cells. Vince Press, Budapest. [In Hungarian.]

    Csermely P. , '', in Stress Proteins. Ancient Protection Mechanism of Our Cells , (2000 ) -.

  • Fitt, G. P. (1989) The ecology of Heliothis species in relation to agroecosystems. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 34, 17–52.

    Fitt G. P. , 'The ecology of Heliothis species in relation to agroecosystems ' (1989 ) 34 Annu. Rev. Entomol. : 17 -52.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hammon, K. E., Faeth, S. H. (2006) Ecology of plant-herbivore communities: A fungal component? Nat. Toxins 1, 197–208.

    Faeth S. H. , 'Ecology of plant-herbivore communities: A fungal component? ' (2006 ) 1 Nat. Toxins : 197 -208.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hartl, F. U. (1996) Molecular chaperones in cellular protein folding. Nature 381, 571–580.

    Hartl F. U. , 'Molecular chaperones in cellular protein folding ' (1996 ) 381 Nature : 571 -580.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hatcher, P. E., Paul, N. D. (2001) Plant pathogen: herbivore interactions and their effects on weeds. In: Biotic Interactions in Plant-pathogen Associations. CABI Publications, Wallingford, pp. 193–225.

    Paul N. D. , '', in Biotic Interactions in Plant-pathogen Associations , (2001 ) -.

  • Horváth, Z., Fischl, G. (1996) The appearance of the phytopathogens in sunflower and maize by injuries of the sunflower moth and the cotton bollworm. VI. Keszthelyi Növényvédelmi Fórum, Keszthely (Abstract), 16. [In Hungarian.]

  • Kahler, A. L., Olness, A. E., Sutter, G. R., Dybing, C. D., Devine, O. J. (1985) Root damage by Western corn rootworm and nutrient content in maize. Agron. 6 J. 77, 769–774.

    Devine O. J. , 'Root damage by Western corn rootworm and nutrient content in maize ' (1985 ) 77 Agron. 6 J. : 769 -774.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Keller, N. P., Bergstrom, G. C., Carruthers, R. I. (1986) Potential yield reductions in maize associated with an anthracnose/European corn borer pest complex in New York. Phytopathology 76, 586–589.

    Carruthers R. I. , 'Potential yield reductions in maize associated with an anthracnose/European corn borer pest complex in New York ' (1986 ) 76 Phytopathology : 586 -589.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Keszthelyi, S., Takács, A. (2002) Changes of weight and in-kernel content values of maize hybrids (Occitan, Colomba, DK-471) as a result of damaging by European corn borer. J. Cent. Eur. Agric. 3, 169–178.

    Takács A. , 'Changes of weight and in-kernel content values of maize hybrids (Occitan, Colomba, DK-471) as a result of damaging by European corn borer ' (2002 ) 3 J. Cent. Eur. Agric. : 169 -178.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Keszthelyi, S., Szabó, T., Kurucsai, P., Nádasy, M., Marczali, Zs. (2007) Damage determination of Western corn rootworm in soil disinfected, continuous corn. Cer. Res. Commun. 35, 593–596.

    Marczali Zs. , 'Damage determination of Western corn rootworm in soil disinfected, continuous corn ' (2007 ) 35 Cer. Res. Commun. : 593 -596.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Király, L., Barna, B., Király, Z. (2007) A new light upon the plant resistance and its mechanisms. Növénytermelés 56, 65–81.

    Király Z. , 'A new light upon the plant resistance and its mechanisms ' (2007 ) 56 Növénytermelés : 65 -81.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lodos, N. (1979) Maize pests and their importance in Turkey. Eppo Bull. 11, 87–89.

    Lodos N. , 'Maize pests and their importance in Turkey ' (1979 ) 11 Eppo Bull. : 87 -89.

  • Ma, X. L., Wang, Z. L., Qi, Y. C., Zhao, Y. X., Zhang, H. (2003) Isolation S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from Suadea salsa and its differential expression under NaCl stress. Acta Bot. Sin. 45, 1359–1365.

    Zhang H. , 'Isolation S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from Suadea salsa and its differential expression under NaCl stress ' (2003 ) 45 Acta Bot. Sin. : 1359 -1365.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marton, L. C., Szőke, C., Pintér, J., Bodnár, E. (2009) Studies on the tolerance of maize hybrids to western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). Maydica 54, 217–220.

    Bodnár E. , 'Studies on the tolerance of maize hybrids to western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) ' (2009 ) 54 Maydica : 217 -220.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mesterházy, Á. (1978) Breeding wheat and corn for resistance to Fusarium spp. in seedling stage. 3rd International Congress of Plant Pathology: Munich, 16–23 August 1978. Wageningen, p. 288.

  • Mesterházy, Á., Kovács, K. (1986) Breeding corn against fusarial stalk rot, ear rot and seedling blight. Acta Phytopath. Entomol. Hung. 21, 231–249.

    Kovács K. , 'Breeding corn against fusarial stalk rot, ear rot and seedling blight ' (1986 ) 21 Acta Phytopath. Entomol. Hung. : 231 -249.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Meyers, B. C., Kozik, A., Griego, A., Kuang, H., Michelmore, R. W. (2003) Genome-wide analysis of NBS-LRR-encoding genes in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 15, 809–834.

    Michelmore R. W. , 'Genome-wide analysis of NBS-LRR-encoding genes in Arabidopsis ' (2003 ) 15 Plant Cell : 809 -834.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mile, L., Ilovay, Z. (1979) Damage examinations of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilis Hbn.) in the case of industrial productionaly conditions. Növényvédelem 15, 313–315.

    Ilovay Z. , 'Damage examinations of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilis Hbn.) in the case of industrial productionaly conditions ' (1979 ) 15 Növényvédelem : 313 -315.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., Showers, W. B. (1997) Reduced fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize genetically engineered for european corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87, 1071–1077.

    Showers W. B. , 'Reduced fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize genetically engineered for european corn borer resistance ' (1997 ) 87 Phytopathology : 1071 -1077.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pál-Fám, F., Kerepesi, I., Keszthelyi, S., Pozsgai, J. (2008) Germination, enzyme activity and nutrient contents of hail stormed corn in the case of corn smut fungus [Ustilago maydis (DC.)Corda]. Cer. Res. Commun. 36, 195–198.

    Pozsgai J. , 'Germination, enzyme activity and nutrient contents of hail stormed corn in the case of corn smut fungus [Ustilago maydis (DC.)Corda] ' (2008 ) 36 Cer. Res. Commun. : 195 -198.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pálfy, Cs. (1983) The European corn borer and its damage. Növényvédelem 19, 515–517.

    Pálfy Cs. , 'The European corn borer and its damage ' (1983 ) 19 Növényvédelem : 515 -517.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ruming, L., Manjit, S. K., Orlando, J. M., Linda, M. P. (2004) Relationship among Aspergillus flavus infection, maize weevil damage, and ear moisture loss in exotic × adapted maize. Cer. Res. Commun. 32, 371–377.

    Linda M. P. , 'Relationship among Aspergillus flavus infection, maize weevil damage, and ear moisture loss in exotic × adapted maize ' (2004 ) 32 Cer. Res. Commun. : 371 -377.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schulze-Leifert, P., Bieri, S. (2005) Recognition at a distance. Science 308, 506–508.

    Bieri S. , 'Recognition at a distance ' (2005 ) 308 Science : 506 -508.

  • Stone, P. J., Nicolas, M. E. (1998) Comparison of sudden heat stress with gradual exposure to high temperature during grain filling in two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance II. Fractional protein accumulation. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25, 1–11.

    Nicolas M. E. , 'Comparison of sudden heat stress with gradual exposure to high temperature during grain filling in two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance II. Fractional protein accumulation ' (1998 ) 25 Aust. J. Plant Physiol. : 1 -11.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stone, P. J., Nicolas, M. E. (1998) The effect of duration of heat stress during grain filling on two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance: Grain growth and fractional protein accumulation. Aust J. Plant Physiol. 25, 13–20.

    Nicolas M. E. , 'The effect of duration of heat stress during grain filling on two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance: Grain growth and fractional protein accumulation ' (1998 ) 25 Aust J. Plant Physiol. : 13 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szőke, Cs., Zsubori, Z., Pók, I., Rácz, F., Illés, O., Szegedi, I. (2005) Significance of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in maize production. Acta Agron. Hung. 50, 447–461.

    Szegedi I. , 'Significance of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in maize production ' (2005 ) 50 Acta Agron. Hung. : 447 -461.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szigeti, Z. (1998) Plants and the stress. In: Láng, F. (ed.): Plant Physiology. The Vegetal Metabolism. ELTE, Eötvös Press. [In Hungarian.]

    Szigeti Z. , '', in Plant Physiology. The Vegetal Metabolism , (1998 ) -.

  • Tollefson, J. J. (2007) Evaluating maize for resistance to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Maydica 52, 311–318.

    Tollefson J. J. , 'Evaluating maize for resistance to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ' (2007 ) 52 Maydica : 311 -318.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tóthmérész, B. (1996) NuCoSA. Software for Botanical-, Zoogical- and Ecological Experiments. Scientia Press, Budapest.

    Tóthmérész B. , '', in NuCoSA. Software for Botanical-, Zoogical- and Ecological Experiments , (1996 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Waldo, D. R. (1973) Extent and partition of cereal grain starch digestion in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 37, 1062–1074.

    Waldo D. R. , 'Extent and partition of cereal grain starch digestion in ruminants ' (1973 ) 37 J. Anim. Sci. : 1062 -1074.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wilhelm, E. P., Mullen, R. E., Keeling, P. L., Singletary, G. W. (1999) Heat stress during grain filling in maize: Effects on kernel growth and metabolism. Crop Sci. 39, 1733–1741.

    Singletary G. W. , 'Heat stress during grain filling in maize: Effects on kernel growth and metabolism ' (1999 ) 39 Crop Sci. : 1733 -1741.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wilson, C. M. (1991) Multiple zeins from maize endosperms characterized by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Plant Physiol. 95, 777–786.

    Wilson C. M. , 'Multiple zeins from maize endosperms characterized by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography ' (1991 ) 95 Plant Physiol. : 777 -786.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Woo, Y., Hu, M. D., Larkins, B., Jung, R. (2001) Genomic analysis of genes expressed in maize endosperm identifies novel seed proteins and clarifies patterns of zein gene expression. Plant Cell 13, 2297–2317.

    Jung R. , 'Genomic analysis of genes expressed in maize endosperm identifies novel seed proteins and clarifies patterns of zein gene expression ' (2001 ) 13 Plant Cell : 2297 -2317.

    • Search Google Scholar