View More View Less
  • 1 Pázmány Péter Catholic University Faculty of Information Technology Budapest Hungary
  • 2 Semmelweis University Department of Ophthalmology Budapest Hungary
  • 3 Szentágothai J. Knowledge Center — Semmelweis University MR Research Center Budapest Hungary
Restricted access

Amblyopia is a visual disorder caused by an anomalous early visual experience. It has been suggested that suppression of the visual input from the weaker eye might be a primary underlying mechanism of the amblyopic syndrome. However, it is still an unresolved question to what extent neural responses to the visual information coming from the amblyopic eye are suppressed during binocular viewing. To address this question we measured event-related potentials (ERP) to foveal face stimuli in amblyopic patients, both in monocular and binocular viewing conditions. The results revealed no difference in the amplitude and latency of early components of the ERP responses between the binocular and fellow eye stimulation. On the other hand, early ERP components were reduced and delayed in the case of monocular stimulation of the amblyopic eye as compared to the fellow eye stimulation or to binocular viewing. The magnitude of the amblyopic effect measured on the ERP amplitudes was comparable to that found on the fMRI responses in the fusiform face area using the same face stimuli and task conditions. Our findings showing that the amblyopic effects present on the early ERP components in the case of monocular stimulation are not manifested in the ERP responses during binocular viewing suggest that input from the amblyopic eye is completely suppressed already at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing when stimuli are viewed by both eyes.

  • Alais, D., Melcher, D. (2007) Strength and coherence of binocular rivalry depends on shared stimulus complexity. Vision Res. 47, 269–279.

    Melcher D. , 'Strength and coherence of binocular rivalry depends on shared stimulus complexity ' (2007 ) 47 Vision Res. : 269 -279.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anderson, S. J., Holliday, I. E., Harding, G. F. (1999) Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Vision Res. 39, 1723–1738.

    Harding G. F. , 'Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG) ' (1999 ) 39 Vision Res. : 1723 -1738.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bankó, E. M., Gál, V., Körtvélyes, J., Kovács, G., Vidnyánszky, Z. (2011) Dissociating the effect of noise on sensory processing and overall decision difficulty. J. Neurosci. 31, 2663–2674.

    Vidnyánszky Z. , 'Dissociating the effect of noise on sensory processing and overall decision difficulty ' (2011 ) 31 J. Neurosci. : 2663 -2674.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barnes, G. R., Hess, R. F., Dumoulin, S. O., Achtman, R. L., Pike, G. B. (2001) The cortical deficit in humans with strabismic amblyopia. J. Physiol. 533, 281–297.

    Pike G. B. , 'The cortical deficit in humans with strabismic amblyopia ' (2001 ) 533 J. Physiol. : 281 -297.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brett, M., Anton, J., Valabregue, R., Poline, J. (2002) Region of interest analysis using an SPM toolbox. Neuroimage 16, S497.

    Poline J. , 'Region of interest analysis using an SPM toolbox ' (2002 ) 16 Neuroimage : S497 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Conner, I. P., Odom, J. V., Schwartz, T. L., Mendola, J. D. (2007) Monocular activation of V1 and V2 in amblyopic adults measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. J AAPOS 11, 341–350.

    Mendola J. D. , 'Monocular activation of V1 and V2 in amblyopic adults measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging ' (2007 ) 11 J AAPOS : 341 -350.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davis, A. R., Sloper, J. J., Neveu, M. M., Hogg, C. R., Morgan, M. J., Holder, G. E. (2003) Electrophysiological and psychophysical differences between early- and late-onset strabismic amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 610–617.

    Holder G. E. , 'Electrophysiological and psychophysical differences between early- and late-onset strabismic amblyopia ' (2003 ) 44 Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. : 610 -617.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Deffke, I., Sander, T., Heidenreich, J., Sommer, W., Curio, G., Trahms, L., Lueschow, A. (2007) MEG/EEG sources of the 170-ms response to faces are co-localized in the fusiform gyrus. NeuroImage 35, 1495–1501.

    Lueschow A. , 'MEG/EEG sources of the 170-ms response to faces are co-localized in the fusiform gyrus ' (2007 ) 35 NeuroImage : 1495 -1501.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haynes, J.-D., Deichmann, R., Rees, G. (2005) Eye-specific effects of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleus. Nature 438, 496–499.

    Rees G. , 'Eye-specific effects of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleus ' (2005 ) 438 Nature : 496 -499.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hess, R. F., Thompson, B., Gole, G., Mullen, K. T. (2009) Deficient responses from the lateral geniculate nucleus in humans with amblyopia. Eur. J. Neurosci. 29, 1064–1070.

    Mullen K. T. , 'Deficient responses from the lateral geniculate nucleus in humans with amblyopia ' (2009 ) 29 Eur. J. Neurosci. : 1064 -1070.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hesselmann, G., Malach, R. (2011) The link between fMRI-BOLD activation and perceptual awareness is “stream-invariant” in the human visual system. Cereb. Cortex 21, 2829–2837.

    Malach R. , 'The link between fMRI-BOLD activation and perceptual awareness is “stream-invariant” in the human visual system ' (2011 ) 21 Cereb. Cortex : 2829 -2837.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hou, C., Pettet, M. W., Norcia, A. M. (2008) Abnormalities of coherent motion processing in strabismic amblyopia: Visual-evoked potential measurements. J. Vis. 8, 2.1–12.

    Norcia A. M. , 'Abnormalities of coherent motion processing in strabismic amblyopia: Visual-evoked potential measurements ' (2008 ) 8 J. Vis. : 2.1 -12.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kovács, G., Cziraki, C., Vidnyánszky, Z., Schweinberger, S. R., Greenlee, M. W. (2008) Positionspecific and position-invariant face aftereffects reflect the adaptation of different cortical areas. NeuroImage 43, 156–164.

    Greenlee M. W. , 'Positionspecific and position-invariant face aftereffects reflect the adaptation of different cortical areas ' (2008 ) 43 NeuroImage : 156 -164.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kreiman, G., Fried, I., Koch, C. (2002) Single-neuron correlates of subjective vision in the human medial temporal lobe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 8378–8383.

    Koch C. , 'Single-neuron correlates of subjective vision in the human medial temporal lobe ' (2002 ) 99 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA : 8378 -8383.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kreiman, G., Fried, I., Koch, C. (2005) Responses of single neurons in the human brain during flash suppression. In: Alais, D., Blake, R. (eds) Binocular rivalry. MIT Press, pp. 213–230.

  • Lerner, Y., Hendler, T., Malach, R., Harel, M., Leiba, H., Stolovitch, C., Pianka, P. (2006) Selective fovea-related deprived activation in retinotopic and high-order visual cortex of human amblyopes. NeuroImage 33, 169–179.

    Pianka P. , 'Selective fovea-related deprived activation in retinotopic and high-order visual cortex of human amblyopes ' (2006 ) 33 NeuroImage : 169 -179.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lerner, Y., Pianka, P., Azmon, B., Leiba, H., Stolovitch, C., Loewenstein, A., Harel, M., Hendler, T., Malach, R. (2003) Area-specific amblyopic effects in human occipitotemporal object representations. Neuron 40, 1023–1029.

    Malach R. , 'Area-specific amblyopic effects in human occipitotemporal object representations ' (2003 ) 40 Neuron : 1023 -1029.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Li, J., Thompson, B., Lam, C. S. Y., Deng, D., Chan, L. Y. L., Maehara, G., Woo, G. C., Yu, M., Hess, R. F. (2011) The role of suppression in amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 4169–4176.

    Hess R. F. , 'The role of suppression in amblyopia ' (2011 ) 52 Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. : 4169 -4176.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Li, X., Dumoulin, S. O., Mansouri, B., Hess, R. F. (2007) Cortical deficits in human amblyopia: their regional distribution and their relationship to the contrast detection deficit. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 1575–1591.

    Hess R. F. , 'Cortical deficits in human amblyopia: their regional distribution and their relationship to the contrast detection deficit ' (2007 ) 48 Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. : 1575 -1591.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Linkenkaer-Hansen, K., Palva, J. M., Sams, M., Hietanen, J. K., Aronen, H. J., Ilmoniemi, R. J. (1998) Face-selective processing in human extrastriate cortex around 120 ms after stimulus onset revealed by magneto- and electroencephalography. Neurosci. Lett. 253, 147–150.

    Ilmoniemi R. J. , 'Face-selective processing in human extrastriate cortex around 120 ms after stimulus onset revealed by magneto- and electroencephalography ' (1998 ) 253 Neurosci. Lett. : 147 -150.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Manny, R. E., Levi, D. M. (1982) The visually evoked potential in humans with amblyopia: pseudorandom modulation of uniform field and sine-wave gratings. Exp. Brain Res. 47, 15–27.

    Levi D. M. , 'The visually evoked potential in humans with amblyopia: pseudorandom modulation of uniform field and sine-wave gratings ' (1982 ) 47 Exp. Brain Res. : 15 -27.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Melloni, L., Schwiedrzik, C. M., Rodriguez, E., Singer, W. (2009) (Micro)Saccades, corollary activity and cortical oscillations. Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul Ed.) 13, 239–245.

    Singer W. , '(Micro)Saccades, corollary activity and cortical oscillations ' (2009 ) 13 Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul Ed.) : 239 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moradi, F., Koch, C., Shimojo, S. (2005) Face adaptation depends on seeing the face. Neuron 45, 169–175.

    Shimojo S. , 'Face adaptation depends on seeing the face ' (2005 ) 45 Neuron : 169 -175.

  • Muckli, L., Kiess, S., Tonhausen, N., Singer, W., Goebel, R., Sireteanu, R. (2006) Cerebral correlates of impaired grating perception in individual, psychophysically assessed human amblyopes. Vision Res. 46, 506–526.

    Sireteanu R. , 'Cerebral correlates of impaired grating perception in individual, psychophysically assessed human amblyopes ' (2006 ) 46 Vision Res. : 506 -526.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Parisi, V., Scarale, M. E., Balducci, N., Fresina, M., Campos, E. C. (2010) Electrophysiological detection of delayed postretinal neural conduction in human amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5041–5048.

    Campos E. C. , 'Electrophysiological detection of delayed postretinal neural conduction in human amblyopia ' (2010 ) 51 Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. : 5041 -5048.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pasley, B. N., Mayes, L. C., Schultz, R. T. (2004) Subcortical discrimination of unperceived objects during binocular rivalry. Neuron 42, 163–172.

    Schultz R. T. , 'Subcortical discrimination of unperceived objects during binocular rivalry ' (2004 ) 42 Neuron : 163 -172.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sadeh, B., Podlipsky, I., Zhdanov, A., Yovel, G. (2010) Event-related potential and functional MRI measures of face-selectivity are highly correlated: a simultaneous ERP-fMRI investigation. Hum. Brain Mapp. 31, 1490–1501.

    Yovel G. , 'Event-related potential and functional MRI measures of face-selectivity are highly correlated: a simultaneous ERP-fMRI investigation ' (2010 ) 31 Hum. Brain Mapp. : 1490 -1501.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sheinberg, D. L., Logothetis, N. K. (1997) The role of temporal cortical areas in perceptual organization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 3408–3413.

    Logothetis N. K. , 'The role of temporal cortical areas in perceptual organization ' (1997 ) 94 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA : 3408 -3413.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tong, F., Engel, S. A. (2001) Interocular rivalry revealed in the human cortical blind-spot representation. Nature 411, 195–199.

    Engel S. A. , 'Interocular rivalry revealed in the human cortical blind-spot representation ' (2001 ) 411 Nature : 195 -199.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tong, F., Nakayama, K., Vaughan, J. T., Kanwisher, N. (1998) Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in human extrastriate cortex. Neuron 21, 753–759.

    Kanwisher N. , 'Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in human extrastriate cortex ' (1998 ) 21 Neuron : 753 -759.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wunderlich, K., Schneider, K. A., Kastner, S. (2005) Neural correlates of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleus. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1595–1602.

    Kastner S. , 'Neural correlates of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleus ' (2005 ) 8 Nat. Neurosci. : 1595 -1602.

    • Search Google Scholar