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  • 1 International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Department Biomedical Science, Faculty of Science Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia
  • 2 AlZaytoonah University of Jordan Department Basic Medical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy Amman Jordan
  • 3 International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Department Biomedical Science, Faculty of Allied Health Science Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia
  • 4 International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Department Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia
  • 5 International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Department Biotechnology, Faculty of Science Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia
  • 6 International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Department Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia
  • 7 AlZaytoonah University of Jordan Faculty of Pharmacy P.O. Box 130 Amman 11733 Jordan
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Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates of the phylum of Echinodermata that have been used in Asian traditional medicine since ancient times. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous and organic extracts from two sea cucumber species, Holothuria edulis Lesson (Holothuriidae) and Stichopus horrens Selenka (Stichopodidae). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH· and β-carotene bleaching assays, while MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of the extracts against two human cancer cell lines, non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549) and esophageal cancer cells (TE1). The results showed that both aqueous and organic extracts of H. edulis were able to scavenge DPH radical (IC50 at 2.04 mg/ml and 8.73 mg/ml, respectively). Aqueous and organic extracts of S. horrens inhibited 79.62% and 46.66% of β-carotene oxidation by linoleate free radical. On the other hand, the organic extract of S. horrens exhibited the highest cytotoxic effects against A549 and TE1 cancer cells giving IC50 at 15.5 and 4.0 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the present study revealed that H. edulis and S. horrens contain promising levels of antioxidant and cytotoxic natural products that might be used for cancer prevention and treatment.

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