View More View Less
  • 1 Ningbo University School of Marine Sciences Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 China
Restricted access

Lipopolysaccharide and b-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) is a pattern recognition receptor that can recognize and bind LPS and b-1,3-glucan. LGBP has crucial roles in innate immune defense against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In this study, LGBP functions in Portunus trituberculatus innate immunity were analyzed. First, the mRNA expression of PtLGBP in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and muscle toward three typical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) stimulations were examined using real-time PCR. Results show that the overall trend of relative expressions of the LGBP gene in three tissues is consistent, showing up-down trend. In each group, the highest expression of the LGBP gene was at 3 and 12 h post-injection. The LGBP gene is also expressed significantly higher in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas than in the muscle. The highest level of LGBP was in the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and glucan-injected group, whereas the lowest level was in the PGN-injected group. Furthermore, bacterial agglutination assay with polyclonal antibody specifically for PtLGBP proved that the recombinant PtLGBP (designated as rPtLGBP) could exhibit obvious agglutination activity toward Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and V. alginolyticus; Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis; and fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LGBP in Portunus trituberculatus possibly served as a multi-functional PRR. In addition, LGBP is not only involved in the immune response against Gram-negative and fungi, as manifested in other invertebrates, but also has a significant role in anti-Gram-positive bacteria infection.

  • Akira, S., Uematsu, S., Takeuchi, O. (2006) Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 124, 783–801.

    Takeuchi O. , 'Pathogen recognition and innate immunity ' (2006 ) 124 Cell : 783 -801.

  • Ao, J. Q., Ling, E. J., Yu, X. Q. (2007) Drosophila C-type lectins enhance cellular encapsulation. Mol. Immunol. 44, 2541–2548.

    Yu X. Q. , 'Drosophila C-type lectins enhance cellular encapsulation ' (2007 ) 44 Mol. Immunol. : 2541 -2548.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Beutler, B. (2004) Innate immunity: an overview. Mol. Immunol. 40, 845–859.

    Beutler B. , 'Innate immunity: an overview ' (2004 ) 40 Mol. Immunol. : 845 -859.

  • Cheng, W., Liu, C. H., Tsai, C. H., Chen, J. C. (2005) Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 18, 297–310.

    Chen J. C. , 'Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei ' (2005 ) 18 Fish Shellfish Immunol. : 297 -310.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Christophides, G. K., Zdobnov, E., Barillas-Mury, C., Birney, E., Blandin, S., Blass, C. (2002) Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae. Science 298, 159–165.

    Blass C. , 'Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae ' (2002 ) 298 Science : 159 -165.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Du, X. J., Zhao, X. F., Wang, J. X. (2007) Molecular cloning and characterization of a lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from fleshy prawn (Fenneropenaeus chinensis). Mol. Immunol. 44, 1085–1094.

    Wang J. X. , 'Molecular cloning and characterization of a lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from fleshy prawn (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) ' (2007 ) 44 Mol. Immunol. : 1085 -1094.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Janeway, C. A. J., Medzhitov, R. (2002) Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20, 197–216.

    Medzhitov R. , 'Innate immune recognition ' (2002 ) 20 Annu. Rev. Immunol. : 197 -216.

  • Jang, S., Ohtani, K., Fukuoh, A., Yoshizaki, T., Fukuda, M., Motomura, W. (2009) Scavenger receptor collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) predominantly mediates zymosan phagocytosis by human vascular endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 3956–3965.

    Motomura W. , 'Scavenger receptor collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) predominantly mediates zymosan phagocytosis by human vascular endothelial cells ' (2009 ) 284 J. Biol. Chem. : 3956 -3965.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim, Y. S., Ryu, J. H., Han, S. J., Choi, K. H., Nam, K. B., Jang, I. H. (2000) Gram-negative bacteriabinding protein, a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan that mediates the signaling for the induction of innate immune genes in Drosophila melanogaster cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 32721–32727.

    Jang I. H. , 'Gram-negative bacteriabinding protein, a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan that mediates the signaling for the induction of innate immune genes in Drosophila melanogaster cells ' (2000 ) 275 J. Biol. Chem. : 32721 -32727.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, S. Y., Wang, R., Soderhall, K. (2000) A lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from hemocytes of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 1337–1343.

    Soderhall K. , 'A lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from hemocytes of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning ' (2000 ) 275 J. Biol. Chem. : 1337 -1343.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, W. J., Lee, J. D., Kravchenko, V. V., Ulevitch, R. J., Brey, P. T. (1996) Purification and molecular cloning of an inducible Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 93, 7888–7893.

    Brey P. T. , 'Purification and molecular cloning of an inducible Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori ' (1996 ) 93 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA : 7888 -7893.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lemaitre, B., Hoffmann, J. (2007) The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 25, 697–743.

    Hoffmann J. , 'The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster ' (2007 ) 25 Annu. Rev. Immunol. : 697 -743.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lin, Y. C., Vaseeharan, B., Chen, J. C. (2008) Identification and phylogenetic analysis on lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 32, 1260–1269.

    Chen J. C. , 'Identification and phylogenetic analysis on lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus ' (2008 ) 32 Dev. Comp. Immunol. : 1260 -1269.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Loker, E. S., Adema, C. M., Zhang, S. M., Kepler, T. B. (2004) Invertebrate immune systemsenot homogeneous, not simple, not well understood. Immunol. Rev. 198, 10–24.

    Kepler T. B. , 'Invertebrate immune systemsenot homogeneous, not simple, not well understood ' (2004 ) 198 Immunol. Rev. : 10 -24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Medzhitov, R., Janeway, C. A. J. (2002) Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system. Science 296, 298–300.

    Janeway C. A. J. , 'Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system ' (2002 ) 296 Science : 298 -300.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mellroth, P., Steiner, H. (2006) PGRP-SB1: an N-acetylmuramoyl L-alanine amidase with antibacterial activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 350, 994–999.

    Steiner H. , 'PGRP-SB1: an N-acetylmuramoyl L-alanine amidase with antibacterial activity ' (2006 ) 350 Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. : 994 -999.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Muta, T., Miyata, T., Tokunaga, F., Nakamura, T., Iwanaga, S. (1987) Primary structure of antilipopolysaccharide factor from American horseshoe crab, Limulus poly-phemus. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 101, 1321–1330.

    Iwanaga S. , 'Primary structure of antilipopolysaccharide factor from American horseshoe crab, Limulus poly-phemus ' (1987 ) 101 J. Biochem. (Tokyo) : 1321 -1330.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roch, P. (1999) Defense mechanisms and disease prevention in farmed marine invertebrates. Aquaculture 172, 125–145.

    Roch P. , 'Defense mechanisms and disease prevention in farmed marine invertebrates ' (1999 ) 172 Aquaculture : 125 -145.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Söderhäll, K., Cerenius, L. (1992) Crustacean immunity. Ann. Rev. Fish Dis. 2, 3–23.

    Cerenius L. , 'Crustacean immunity ' (1992 ) 2 Ann. Rev. Fish Dis. : 3 -23.

  • Su, J. G., Song, L. S., Xu, W., Wu, L. T., Li, H. L., Xiang, J. H. (2004) CDNA cloning and mRNA expression of the lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein gene from scallop Chlamys farreri. Aquaculture 239, 69–80.

    Xiang J. H. , 'CDNA cloning and mRNA expression of the lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein gene from scallop Chlamys farreri ' (2004 ) 239 Aquaculture : 69 -80.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, G. L., Shan, J., Chen, Y. E., Li, Z. (2006) Study on pathogens and pathogenesis of emulsification disease of Portunus trituberculatus. Adv. Marine Sci. 24, 527–531.

    Li Z. , 'Study on pathogens and pathogenesis of emulsification disease of Portunus trituberculatus ' (2006 ) 24 Adv. Marine Sci. : 527 -531.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yang, J. L., Qiua, L. M., Wang, L. L., Wei, X. M., Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., Liu, L., Song, L. S. (2010) CfLGBP, a pattern recognition receptor in Chlamys farreri involved in the immune response against various bacteria. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 29, 825–831.

    Song L. S. , 'CfLGBP, a pattern recognition receptor in Chlamys farreri involved in the immune response against various bacteria ' (2010 ) 29 Fish Shellfish Immunol. : 825 -831.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yeh, M. S., Chang, C. C., Cheng, W. (2009) Molecular cloning and characterization of lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its transcription in relation to foreign material injection and the molt stage. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 27, 701–706.

    Cheng W. , 'Molecular cloning and characterization of lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its transcription in relation to foreign material injection and the molt stage ' (2009 ) 27 Fish Shellfish Immunol. : 701 -706.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhao, D., Chen, L., Qin, C., Zhang, H., Wu, P., Li, E. (2009) Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 154, 17–24.

    Li E. , 'Molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) ' (2009 ) 154 Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Biochem. Mol. Biol. : 17 -24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhang, Y., Jin, S., Zhao, Q. S., Wang, G. L., Yu, K., Wang, C. L. (2010) Cloning and expression pattern analysis of a lipopolysaccharide-and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein in Portunus trituberculatus. Zoological Research 31, 587–594.

    Wang C. L. , 'Cloning and expression pattern analysis of a lipopolysaccharide-and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein in Portunus trituberculatus ' (2010 ) 31 Zoological Research : 587 -594.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhang, Y., Qiu, L. M., Song, L. S., Zhang, H., Zhao, J. M., Wang, L. L. (2009) Cloning and characterization of a novel C-type lectin gene from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 26, 183–192.

    Wang L. L. , 'Cloning and characterization of a novel C-type lectin gene from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei ' (2009 ) 26 Fish Shellfish Immunol. : 183 -192.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zheng, P. L., Wang, H., Zhao, J. M., Song, L. S., Qiu, L. M., Dong, C. H. (2008) A lectin (CfLec-2) aggregating Staphylococcus haemolyticus from scallop Chlamys farreri. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 24, 286–293.

    Dong C. H. , 'A lectin (CfLec-2) aggregating Staphylococcus haemolyticus from scallop Chlamys farreri ' (2008 ) 24 Fish Shellfish Immunol. : 286 -293.

    • Search Google Scholar