View More View Less
  • 1 Ege University Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy 35100 Izmir Turkey
  • 2 Ege University Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy 35100 Izmir Turkey
Restricted access

Studies on Alzheimer’s disease have been highlighted due to increasing prevalence of this disease. Oldest hypothesis about the pathophysiology strengthens the research of cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment. Amaryllidaceae plants are well known for alkaloids showing cholinesterase inhibiting activity. Among them, Sternbergia species gained attention as a source of metabolites of these alkaloid contents. Studies have focused mainly on the bulbs of these plants. In this study the potential acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of endemic Sternbergia candida Mathew & T. Baytop (Sc) species was evaluated in both bulbs and leaves in comparison with lycorine. We report for the first time that methanol and chloroform leaf extracts of the plant show AChE inhibitory (AChEI) activity. Among the leaf extracts methanolic extract was much more potent than chloroform extract by means of AChE inhibition. Although IC50 values for methanolic extract was found to be lower than reference drug lycorine; this value of inhibition did not reach to a statistically significant level. Future studies aiming at investigation of the AChE inhibitory activity could be considered using leaves of the plant.

  • Abdalla, S., Abu, M. Z., Sabri, S. (1993) Alkaloids of Sternbergia clusiani and effects of lycorine on guinea pig isolated pulmonary artery and heart. Fitoterapia 64, 518–523.

    Sabri S. , 'Alkaloids of Sternbergia clusiani and effects of lycorine on guinea pig isolated pulmonary artery and heart ' (1993 ) 64 Fitoterapia : 518 -523.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Adhami, H. R., Farsam, H., Krenn, L. (2011) Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian traditional medicine for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Phytother. Res. 25, 1148–1152.

    Krenn L. , 'Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian traditional medicine for acetylcholinesterase inhibition ' (2011 ) 25 Phytother. Res. : 1148 -1152.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Adhami, H. R., Linder, T., Kaehlig, H., Schuster, D., Zehl, M., Krenn, L. (2012) Catechol alkenyls from Semecarpus anacardium: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and binding mode predictions. J. Ethnopharmacol. 139, 142–148.

    Krenn L. , 'Catechol alkenyls from Semecarpus anacardium: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and binding mode predictions ' (2012 ) 139 J. Ethnopharmacol. : 142 -148.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Berkov, S., Codina, C., Viladomat, F., Bastida, J. (2008) N-alkylated galanthamine derivatives: Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Leucojum aestivum. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 2263–2266.

    Bastida J. , 'N-alkylated galanthamine derivatives: Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Leucojum aestivum ' (2008 ) 18 Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. : 2263 -2266.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Calderon, A. I., Cubilla, M., Espinosa, A., Gupta, M. P. (2010) Screening of plants of Amaryllidaceae and related families from Panama as sources of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Pharm. Biol. 48, 988–993.

    Gupta M. P. , 'Screening of plants of Amaryllidaceae and related families from Panama as sources of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors ' (2010 ) 48 Pharm. Biol. : 988 -993.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Citoglu, G. S., Acikara, O. B., Yilmaz, B. S., Ozbek, H. (2012) Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of lycorine from Sternbergia fisheriana (Herbert) Rupr. Fitoterapia 83, 81–87.

    Ozbek H. , 'Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of lycorine from Sternbergia fisheriana (Herbert) Rupr ' (2012 ) 83 Fitoterapia : 81 -87.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Citoglu, G. S., Yilmaz, B. S., Bahadir, O. (2008) Quantitative analysis of lycorine in Sternbergia species growing in Turkey. Chem. Nat. Compd. 44, 826–828.

    Bahadir O. , 'Quantitative analysis of lycorine in Sternbergia species growing in Turkey ' (2008 ) 44 Chem. Nat. Compd. : 826 -828.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Citoglu, G., Tanker, M., Gumusel, B. (1998) Antiinflammatory effects of lycorine and hemanthidine. Phytother. Res. 12, 205–206.

    Gumusel B. , 'Antiinflammatory effects of lycorine and hemanthidine ' (1998 ) 12 Phytother. Res. : 205 -206.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davis, P. H. (1984) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh.

    Davis P. H. , '', in Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands , (1984 ) -.

  • Elgorashi, E. E., Stafford, G. I., Van Staden, J. (2004) Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory effects of amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Planta Med. 70, 260–262.

    Staden J. , 'Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory effects of amaryllidaceae alkaloids ' (2004 ) 70 Planta Med. : 260 -262.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elisha, I. L., Elgorashi, E. E., Hussein, A. A., Duncan, G., Eloff, J. N. (2013) Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of the bulb of Ammocharis coranica (Amaryllidaceae) and its active constituent lycorine. S. Afr. J. Bot. 85, 44–47.

    Eloff J. N. , 'Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of the bulb of Ammocharis coranica (Amaryllidaceae) and its active constituent lycorine ' (2013 ) 85 S. Afr. J. Bot. : 44 -47.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ellman, G. L., Courtney, K. D., Andres, V. Jr., Feather-Stone, R. M. (1961) A new rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem. Pharmac. 7, 85–89.

    Feather-Stone R. M. , 'A new rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity ' (1961 ) 7 Biochem. Pharmac. : 85 -89.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Francis, P. T., Palmer, A. M., Snape, M., Wilcock, G. K. (1999) The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: a review of progress. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 66, 137–147.

    Wilcock G. K. , 'The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: a review of progress ' (1999 ) 66 J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry : 137 -147.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hamulakova, S., Janovec, L., Hrabinova, M., Kristian, P., Kuca, K., Banasova, M., Imrich, J. (2012) Synthesis, design and biological evaluation of novel highly potent tacrine congeners for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 5, 523–531.

    Imrich J. , 'Synthesis, design and biological evaluation of novel highly potent tacrine congeners for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease ' (2012 ) 5 Eur. J. Med. Chem. : 523 -531.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haznedaroglu, M. (2011) Determination of lycorine of Sternbergia candida by HPLC. Planta Med. 77, 1392–1392.

    Haznedaroglu M. , 'Determination of lycorine of Sternbergia candida by HPLC ' (2011 ) 77 Planta Med. : 1392 -1392.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jin, Z. (2013) Amaryllidaceae and Sceletium alkaloids. Nat. Prod. Rep. 30, 849–868.

    Jin Z. , 'Amaryllidaceae and Sceletium alkaloids ' (2013 ) 30 Nat. Prod. Rep. : 849 -868.

  • Kurkcuoglu, M. B., K. Husnu Can. (2010) Headspace volatiles of three Turkish plants. J. Essent. Oil Res. 22, 389–392.

    Husnu Can K. , 'Headspace volatiles of three Turkish plants ' (2010 ) 22 J. Essent. Oil Res. : 389 -392.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mammadov, R., Kara, Y., Vaizogullar Ertem, H. (2011) Study on the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of Sternbergia clusiana. Asian. J. Chem. 23, 5280–5284.

    Vaizogullar Ertem H. , 'Study on the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of Sternbergia clusiana ' (2011 ) 23 Asian. J. Chem. : 5280 -5284.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marston, A., Kissling, J., Hostettmann, K. (2002) A rapid TLC bioautographic method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors in plants. Phytochem. Anal. 13, 51–54.

    Hostettmann K. , 'A rapid TLC bioautographic method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors in plants ' (2002 ) 13 Phytochem. Anal. : 51 -54.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nikolova, M., Gevrenova, R. (2005) Determination of phenolic acids in amaryllidaceae species by high performance liquid chromatography. Pharm. Biol. 43, 289–291.

    Gevrenova R. , 'Determination of phenolic acids in amaryllidaceae species by high performance liquid chromatography ' (2005 ) 43 Pharm. Biol. : 289 -291.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Orhan, I. E., Erdem, S. A., Senol, F. S., Kartal, M., Sener, B. (2012) Exploration of cholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory, antiprotozoal and antioxidant effects of Buxus sempervirens L. (boxwood). Ind. Crop. Prod. 40, 116–121.

    Sener B. , 'Exploration of cholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory, antiprotozoal and antioxidant effects of Buxus sempervirens L. (boxwood) ' (2012 ) 40 Ind. Crop. Prod. : 116 -121.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Orhan, I. E., Yilmaz, B. S., Altun, M. L., Saltan, G., Sener, B. (2011) Anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant appraisal of the bulb extracts of five Sternbergia species. Rec. Nat. Prod. 5, 193–201.

    Sener B. , 'Anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant appraisal of the bulb extracts of five Sternbergia species ' (2011 ) 5 Rec. Nat. Prod. : 193 -201.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ozturk, M., Kolak, U., Topcu, G., Oksuz, S., Choudhary, M. I. (2011) Antioxidant and anticholinesterase active constituents from Micromeria cilicica by radical-scavenging activity-guided fractionation. Food Chem. 126, 31–38.

    Choudhary M. I. , 'Antioxidant and anticholinesterase active constituents from Micromeria cilicica by radical-scavenging activity-guided fractionation ' (2011 ) 126 Food Chem. : 31 -38.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rhee, I. K., Van de Meent, M., Ingkaninan, K., Verpoorte, R. (2001) Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Amaryllidaceae using silica gel thin-layer chromatography in combination with bioactivity staining. J. Chromatogr. A. 915, 217–223.

    Verpoorte R. , 'Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Amaryllidaceae using silica gel thin-layer chromatography in combination with bioactivity staining ' (2001 ) 915 J. Chromatogr. A. : 217 -223.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rodriguez-Franco, M. I., Fernandez-Bachiller, M. I., Perez, C., Hernandez-Ledesma, B., Bartolome, B. (2006) Novel tacrine-melatonin hybrids as dual-acting drugs for Alzheimer disease, with improved acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant properties. J. Med. Chem. 49, 459–462.

    Bartolome B. , 'Novel tacrine-melatonin hybrids as dual-acting drugs for Alzheimer disease, with improved acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant properties ' (2006 ) 49 J. Med. Chem. : 459 -462.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sarikaya, B. B., Kaya, G. I., Onur, M. A., Viladomat, F., Codina, C., Bastida, J., Somer, N. U. (2012) Alkaloids from Galanthus rizehensis. Phytochemistry Letters 5, 367–370.

    Somer N. U. , 'Alkaloids from Galanthus rizehensis ' (2012 ) 5 Phytochemistry Letters : 367 -370.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stahl, S. M. (2008) Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology. Cambridge University Press, New York, 3: 899–943.

    Stahl S. M. , '', in Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology , (2008 ) -.

  • Tanker, M., Citoglu, G., Gumusel, B., Sener, B. (1996) Alkaloids of Sternbergia clusiana and their analgesic effects. Int. J. Pharmacogn. 34, 194–197.

    Sener B. , 'Alkaloids of Sternbergia clusiana and their analgesic effects ' (1996 ) 34 Int. J. Pharmacogn. : 194 -197.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Terry, A. V. Jr., Buccafusco, J. J. (2003) The cholinergic hypothesis of age and Alzheimer’s diseaserelated cognitive deficits: recent challenges and their implications for novel drug development. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 306, 821–827.

    Buccafusco J. J. , 'The cholinergic hypothesis of age and Alzheimer’s diseaserelated cognitive deficits: recent challenges and their implications for novel drug development ' (2003 ) 306 J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. : 821 -827.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Torras-Claveria, L., Berkov, S., Jauregui, O., Caujape, J., Viladomat, F., Codina, C., Bastida, J. (2010) Metabolic profiling of bioactive Pancratium canariense extracts by GC-MS. Phytochem. Anal. 21, 80–88.

    Bastida J. , 'Metabolic profiling of bioactive Pancratium canariense extracts by GC-MS ' (2010 ) 21 Phytochem. Anal. : 80 -88.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Unver, N., Irem Kaya, G., Tansel Ozturk, H. (2005) Antimicrobial activity of Sternbergia sicula and Sternbergia lutea. Fitoterapia 76, 226–229.

    Tansel Ozturk H. , 'Antimicrobial activity of Sternbergia sicula and Sternbergia lutea ' (2005 ) 76 Fitoterapia : 226 -229.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • WHO (2002) WHO global strategy on traditional and alternative medicine. Public Health Rep., Geneva, pp. 1.

    '', in WHO global strategy on traditional and alternative medicine , (2002 ) -.