View More View Less
  • 1 Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt
Restricted access

Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

  • 1.

    Ali, N., Hoque, M. A., Haque, A., Salam, K. A., Karim, M. R., Rahman, A., Islam, K., Saud, Z. A., Khalek, M. A., Akhand, A. A., Hossain, M., Mandal, A., Karim, M. R., Miyataka, H., Himeno, S., Hossain, K. (2010) Association between arsenic exposure and plasma cholinesterase activity: a population based study in Bangladesh. Environ. Health 9, 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Assie, L. K., Francis, F., Gengler, N., Haubruge, E. (2007) Response and genetic analysis of malathion-specific resistant Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in relation to population density. J. Stored Prod.Res. 43, 3344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Balistreri, W. F., Shaw, L. M. (1987) Liver function. In: Tietz, N. B. (ed.) Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. 3rd ed. Saunders Company Philadelphia, London, Toronto, pp. 729761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Breslin, W. J., Marty, M. S., Vedula, U. V., Liberacki, A. B., Yano, B. L. (2000) Developmental toxicity of Spinosad administered by gavage to CD1 rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Food Chem.Toxicol. 38, 11031112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Burtis, C., Edward, A. (1994) Clinical Chemistry. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto.

  • 6.

    Celia, M. H., Wilkinson, J. S. (1973) Liver function. Aust. Vet. J. 49, 163169.

  • 7.

    Cleveland, C. (2007) Environmental and health assessments for spinosad against the backdrop of organic certification. In: Felsot, A. J., Racke, K. D. (eds) Certified Organic and Biologically-DerivedPesticides: Environmental, Health, and Efficacy Assessment. American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Washington, D.C., pp. 109130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Cleveland, C. B., Mayes, M. A., Cryer, S. A. (2001) An ecological risk assessment for spinosad use on cotton. Pest. Manag. Sci. 58, 7084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Coles, E. H. (1986) Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 4th ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto, Mexico City, Hong Kong, pp. 171199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Das, U. N. (2012) Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as markers of low-grade systemic inflammation. Ann. Hepatol. 11, 409411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Davis, L., Britten, J. J., Morgan, M. (1997) Cholinesterase: its significance in anaesthetic practice. Anaesthesia 52, 244260.

  • 12.

    Ecobichon, D. J. (2001) Toxic effects of pesticides. In: Klaassen, C. D. (ed.) Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology. 5th ed. McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 643690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Eissa, F. I., Zidan, N. A. (2010) Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats. Acta Biol. Hung. 61, 3344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Eissa, F. I., Zidan, N. A., Hashem, M. Y., Ahmed, S. S. (2014) Insecticidal efficacy of certain bioinsecticides, diatomaceous earth and modified atmospheres against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on stored wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 57, 3035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    El-Banhawy, M. A., Sanad, S. M., Sakr, S. A., El-Elaimy, I. A., Mahran, H. A. (1993) Histopathological studies on the effect of the anticoagulant rodenticide “Brodifacoum” on the liver of rat. J. Egypt. Ger.Soc. Zool. 12, 185227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Farghaly, M., El-Maghraby, S. (2009) Investigation of chronic toxicity of 14C-fenitrothion and its degradation products on stored soybeans. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 27, 16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Gokcime, A., Gulle, K., Demiri, H., Bayra, D., Kocak, A., Altunta, I. (2007) Effects of diazinon at different doses on rat liver and pancreas tissues. Pestic. Biochem. Phys. 87, 103108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Gozek, K., Artiran, F. (1990) Fate and showed non-significant effect on the activity of the magnitude of malathion residues in stored maize and enzyme bean seeds. In: Proceedings of the Final ResearchCo-ordination Meeting. Panel Proceedings Series (IAEA). Research Co-ordination Meeting on Isotopic Tracer Aided Studies of Pesticide Residues in Stored Products, Ankara (Turkey), 30 May3 Jun 1988. Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria), pp. 4555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Grothe, D. W., Boss, S. M., Gries, C. L. (1992) A subchronic toxicity study in CD-1 mice administered XDE-105 in the diet for 3 months. Unpublished Report No. M01290 from Toxicology Research Laboratories, Lilly Research Laboratories, USA. Submitted for publication to WHO by Dow AgroSciences, Letcombe, United Kingdom.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Grube, A., Donaldson, D., Kiely, T., Wu, L. (2011) Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage: 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Kalender, Y., Uzunhisarcikli, M., Ogutcu, A., Acikgoz, F., Kalender, S. (2006) Effects of diazinon on pseudocholinesterase activity and haematological indices in rats: the protective role of vitamin E. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 22, 4651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Lasram, M. M., Annabi, A. B., Elj, N., Selmi, S., Kamoun, A., El-Fazaa, S., Gharbi, N. (2009) Metabolic disorders of acute exposure to malathion in adult Wistar rats. J. Hazard. Mater. 163, 10521055.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Lillie, R. D., Fullmen, H. M. (1976) Histopathologic Technique and Practical Histochemistry. McGraw-Hill, New York, London.

  • 24.

    Mansour, S. A., Mossa, A. H., Heikal, T. M. (2007) Haematoxicity of a new natural insecticide “spinosad” on male albino rats. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 9, 342346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Martin, D. W., Mayes, P. A., Rodwell, V. W. (1983) Harper’s Review of Biochemistry. Middle East Edition, California.

  • 26.

    Ncibi, S., Othman, M. B., Akacha, A., Krifi, M. N., Zourgi, L. (2008) Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 797802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Ogutcu, A., Suludere, Z., Kalender, Y. (2008) Dichlorvos-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the protective effects of vitamins C and E. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 26, 355361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Plaa, G. L. (1975) Toxic responses of the liver. In: Casarett, J., Doull, C. (eds) Toxicology, the Basic Science of Poisons. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc, New York, Chapter 10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Rahimi, R., Abdollahi, M. (2007) A review on the mechanisms involved in hyperglycemia induced by organophosphorus pesticides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 88, 115121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Rekha, Raina, S., Hamid, S. (2013) Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats. Int. J. Res. Med. Sci. 1, 465475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Rezg, R., Mornagui, B., El-Fazaa, S., Gharbi, N. (2008) Biochemical evaluation of hepatic damage in subchronic exposure to malathion in rats: effect on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities using native PAGE. C. R. Biologies 331, 655662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Rezg, R., Mornagui, B., Kamoun, A., El-Fazaa, S., Gharbi, N. (2007) Effect of subchronic exposure to malathion on metabolic parameters in the rat. C. R. Biologies 330, 143147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Rustemeijer, C., Schouten, J. A., Voerman, H. J., Beynen, A. C., Donker, A. J., Heine, R. J. (2001) Is seudocholinesterase activity related to markers of triacylglycerol synthesis in Type II diabetes mellitus? Clin. Sci. (Lond.) 101, 2935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Saigal, S., Bhatnagar, V. K., Malviys, A. N. (1982) Effect of selected pesticides on alkaline and acid phosphatase in rat. Toxicol. Lett. 12, 177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Salgado, V. L., Sheets, J. J., Watson, G. B., Schmidt, A. L. (1998) Studies on the mode of action of spinosad: the internal effective concentration and the concentration dependence on neural excitation. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 160, 103110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Sayım, F. (2007) Dimethoate-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver of rats. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59, 237243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Shadnia, S., Ashrafivand, S., Mostafalou, S., Abdollahi, M. (2011) N-acetylcysteine a novel treatment for acute human organophosphate poisoning. Int. J. Pharmacol. 7, 732735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Stebbins, K. E., Bond, D. M., Novilla, M. N., Reasor, M. J. (2002) Spinosad insecticide: subchronic and chronic toxicity and lack of carcinogenicity in CD-1 mice. Toxicol. Sci. 65, 276287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Subramanyam, B. H. (2006) Performance of spinosad as a stored grain protectant. In: Lorini, I., Bacaltchuk, B., Beckel, H., Deckers, D., Sundfeld, E., dos Santos, J. P., Biagi, J. D., Celaro, J. C., Faroni, L. R.D’A. , Bortolini, L. de O. F., Sartori, M. R., Elias, M. C., Guedes, R. N. C., da Fonseca, R. G., Scussel, V. M. (eds) Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 15–18 October 2006, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Post Harvest Association, Campinas, Brazil, pp. 250257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Thompson, G. D., Michel, K. H., Yao, R. C., Mynderse, J. S., Mosburg, C. T., Worden, T. V., Chio, E. H., Sparks, T. C., Hutchins, S. H. (1997) The discovery of Saccharopolyspora spinosa and a new class of insect control products. Down Earth 52, 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Vayias, B. J., Athannassiou, C. G., Milonas, D. N., Mavrotas, C. (2010) Persistence and efficacy of spinosad on wheat, maize and barley grains against four major stored product pests. Crop Prot. 29, 496505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Vinogradova, L. F., Mirzoian, Zh. A., Kharlitskaia, E. V., Beketova, T. P. (1989) Experimental antioxidant therapy in toxic liver damage from CCl4 and chloxyl. Patol. Fiziol. Eksp. Ter. 4, 5256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Walmsley, R. N., White, G. H. (1994) A Guide to Diagnostic Clinical Chemistry. 3rd ed. Oxford Blackwell Scientific Publication, London, Edinburgh, Boston.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Wang, H. P., Liang, Y. J., Long, D. X., Chen, J. X., Hou, W. Y., Wu, Y. J. (2009) Metabolic profiles of serum from rats after subchronic exposure to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 22, 10261033.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Yano, B. L., Bond, D. M., Novilla, M. N., McFadden, L. G., Reasor, M. J. (2002) Spinosad insecticide: subchronic and chronic toxicity and lack of carcinogenicity in Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol. Sci. 65, 288298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Yousef, M. I., Awad, T. I., Mohamed, E. H. (2006) Deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage and biochemical alterations in rat and its attenuation by vitamin E. Toxicology 227, 240247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Zidan, N. A. (2013) Insecticidal effectiveness of certain bio-insecticides, inert dusts and modified atmospheres against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on stored wheat. ActaPhytopathol. Entomol. Hung. 48, 165176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Zidan, N. A. (2014) Insecticidal efficacy of spinosad, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in combination with diatomaceous earth, for controlling Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) infesting stored wheat. Acta Phytopathol. Entomol. Hung. 49, 117128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Zidan, N. A., Galal, O. A. (2012) Evaluation of hematological, cytogenetical and biochemical effects of malathion and spinosad on male albino rats. Am.-Eurasian J. Toxicol. Sci. 4, 118130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation