View More View Less
  • 1 Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary
  • | 2 Richter Gedeon Pharmaceutical Company, Budapest, Hungary
  • | 3 Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, Poznan, Poland
Restricted access

A pot experiment was carried out with lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Different water supply was applied: 25%, 40% and 70% saturation of soil water capacity (SWC). Morphological traits, biomass and phenolic type active ingredients were investigated.

Among the two species, main differences were registered in biomass and TPC. Lower SWC resulted in reduced biomass production of lemon balm, while the applied stress treatments did not effect the biomass of thyme. In lemon balm, highest TPC contents were measured in control plants both in shoots and roots but in thyme, the shoots showed a significantly increased TPC at the 25% SWC conditions. Neither the content of total flavonoids nor that of the rosmarinic acid was affected by the treatments. The antioxidant capacity proved to be in tight connection with the TPC in both species (r = 0.766–0.883). The rosmarinic acid content of lemon balm plants contributed to the antioxidant capacity, as well (r = 0.679–0.869).

  • 1.

    Alavi-Samani, S. M., Pirbalouti, A. G., Kachouei, M. A., Hamdi, B. (2013) The influence of reduced irrigation on herbage, essential oil yield and quality of Thymus vulgaris and Thymus daenensis. J. Herbal Drugs 4, 109113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Aziz, E. E., Hendawy, S. F., E-Din, A. A., Omer, E. A. (2008) Effect of soil type and irrigation intervals on plant growth, essential oil yield, and constituents of Thymus vulgaris plant. American-Euroasian. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 4, 443450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Babei, K., Majid, A. D., Sanavi, M., Jabari, R. (2010) Water deficit effect on morphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iran J. Med. Arom. Plants 2, 239251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Bahreininejad, B., Razmjoo, J., Mirza, M. (2014) Effect of water stress ont he productivity and essential oil content and composition of Thymus carmanicus. TEOP 17, 717725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Benzie, I. F., Strain, J. J. (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Annal. Biochem. 239, 7076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bernáth, J., Németh, É. (2001) Ecological diversity of Hungarian medicinal and aromatic plant flora and its regional consequences. Internat. J. Horticult. Sci. 7, 1019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Barrs, H. D. (1968) Determination of water deficits in plant tissues. In: Kosolwski, T. T. (ed.). Water deficits and plant growth. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, pp. 235368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Dixon, R. A., Paiva, N. L. (1995) Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell 7, 10851097.

  • 9.

    Farahany, H. A., Valadabadi, S. A., Daneshian, J., Khalvati, M. A. (2009) Evaluation changing of essential oil of balm (Melissa officinalis L.) under water deficit stress conditions. J. Med. Plants Res. c3, 329333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Fini, A., Brunetti, C., Di Ferdinando, M., Ferrini, F., Tattini, M. (2011) Stress-induced flavonoid biosynthesis and the antioxidant machinery of plants. Plant Signal. Behav. 6, 709711.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Ghasemzadeh, A., Ghasemzadeh, N. (2011) Flavonoids and phenolic acids: role and biochemical activity in plants and human. J. Med. Plants Res. 5, 66676703.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Khosh-Khui, M., Ashiri, F., Saharkhiz, M. J. (2012) Effects of irrigation regimes on antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Med. Aromat. Plants 1, 114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Koksal, E., Bursal, E., Dikici, E., Tozoglu, F., Gulcin, I. (2011) Antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis leaves. J. Med. Plants Res. 5, 217222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kovács, V., Göndör, O. K., Majláth, I., Szalai, G., Janda, T., Pál, M. (2014) The effects of drought on plant defence system in wheat genotypes with different salicylic acid content. In: Koszegi, I. (ed.) Advances in Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Techniques, Pannonian Plant Biotechnology Association, Martonvásár, pp. 4950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Manach, C., Scalbert, A., Morand, C., Rémésy, C., Jimenez, L. (2004) Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79, 727747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Manukyan, A. (2011) Effect of growing factors on productivity and quality of lemon catmint, lemon balm and sage under soilless greenhouse production: I. Drought stress. Med. Arom. Plant Sci.Biotechnol. 5, 119125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Michalak, A. (2006) Phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity growing under heavy metal stress. Polish J. Environ. Stud. 15, 523530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Ozturk, A., Unlukar, A., Ipek, A., Gurbuz, B. (2004) Effects of salt stress and water deficit on plant growth and essential oil content of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Pak. J. Bot. 36, 787792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Penka, M. (1978) Influence of irrigation on the contents of effective substances in officinal plants. Acta Horticult. 73, 181197.

  • 20.

    Pharmacopoea Europaea VIII (2013) Melissa leaf. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Health Care, Strasbourg, ISBN/ISSN: 978-92-871-7531-1 p.1318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pluhár, Zs ., Kocsis, M., Kuczmog, A., Csete, S., Simkó, H., Sárosi, Sz., Molnár, P., Horváth, Gy. (2012) Essential oil composition and preliminary molecular study of four Hungarian Thymus species. Acta Biol. Hung. 63, 8196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Reynolds, S. G. (1970) The gravimetric method of soil moisture determination. Part I. A study of equipment, and methodological problems. J. Hydrology 11, 258273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Roby, M. H. H., Sarhan, M. A., Selim, K. A. H., Khalel, K. I. (2013) Evaluation of antioxidant activity, total phenols and phenolic compounds in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) extracts. Ind. Crops Prod. 43, 827831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Rusaczonek, A., Zebrowska, M., Waszkiewicz-Robak, B., Slusarczyk, E. (2007) Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity of herbs. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 57, 483488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Shalaby, A. S., Khattab, M. D., El-Gamassy, A., El-Gamassy, K. (1993) Cultivation of Melissa officinalis in Egypt; 1. Effects of fertilization, spacing and planting season. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 331, 115120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Shirzadi, M. H., Khajehpoor, R., Hemayati, S. S. (2010) Study on application of some organic matters and drought stress on agronomic traits and yield of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Plant Ecophysiol. 2, 165168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Singleton, V. L., Rossi, J. A. (1965) Colometric of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Treutter, D. (2010) Managing phenol contents in crop plants by phytochemical farming and breeding Visions and constraints. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, 807857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Editorial Board

      Csányi, Vilmos (Göd)
      Dudits, Dénes (Szeged)
      Falus, András (Budapest)
      Fischer, Ernő (Pécs)
      Gábriel, Róbert (Pécs)
      Gulya, Károly (Szeged)
      Gulyás, Balázs (Stockholm)
      Hajós, Ferenc (Budapest)
      Hámori, József (Budapest)
      Heszky, László (Gödöllő)
      Hideg, Éva (Szeged)
      E. Ito (Sanuki)
      Janda, Tibor (Martonvásár)
      Kavanaugh, Michael P. (Missoula)
      Kása, Péter (Szeged)
      Klein, Éva (Stockholm)
      Kovács, János (Budapest)
      Brigitte Mauch-Mani (Neuchâtel)
      Nässel, Dick R. (Stockholm)
      Nemcsók, János (Szeged)
      Péczely, Péter (Gödöllő)
      Roberts, D. F. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)
      Sakharov, Dimitri A. (Moscow)
      Singh, Meharvan (Fort Worth)
      Sipiczky, Mátyás (Debrecen)
      Szeberényi, József (Pécs)
      Székely, György (Debrecen)
      Tari, Irma (Szeged)
      Vágvölgyi, Csaba (Szeged),
      L. Zaborszky (Newark)


Acta Biologica Hungarica
P.O. Box 35
H-8237 Tihany, Hungary
Phone: (36 87) 448 244 ext. 103
Fax: (36 87) 448 006

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Current Contents: Agriculture
  • Biology and Environmental Sciences
  • Elsevier BIOBASE
  • Global Health
  • Index Medicus
  • Index Veterinarius
  • Medline
  • Referativnyi Zhurnal
  • Science Citation Index
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
  • The ISI Alerting Services
  • Zoological Abstracts


Acta Biologica Hungarica
Language English
Year of
changed title
per Year
per Year
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0236-5383 (Print)
ISSN 1588-256X (Online)