View More View Less
  • 1 Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
  • 2 Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime Japan 790-8566, Japan
  • 3 Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
Restricted access

Tithonia diversifolia (Hermsl.) A. Gray is a perennial invasive plant and spreads quickly in the invasive areas. The extracts of T. diversifolia were found to be toxic to several crop plant species such as rice, maize, sorghum, lettuce and cowpea, and several putative allelopathic substances were identified. However, there is limited information available for the effects of T. diversifolia on wild plants including weed plant species. We investigated the allelopathic potential of T. diversifolia extracts on weed plants, and searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity. An aqueous methanol extract of T. diversifolia leaves inhibited the growth of weed plants, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Phleum pretense L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. The extract was then purified by several chromatographic runs and a phytotoxic substance with allelopathic activity was isolated and identified by spectral analysis as tagitinin C. The substance inhibited the growth of Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense and Echinochloa crus-galli at concentrations greater than 0.1 – 0.3 mM. The present results suggest that T. diversifolia may possess allelopathic potential on weed plants and tagitinin C may be responsible for the allelopathic effects of T. diversifolia. The allelopathic potential of T. diversifolia may contribute to its invasive characteristics.

  • 1.

    Bais, H. P., Weir, T. L., Perry, L. G., Gilroy, S., Vivanco, J. M. (2006) The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57, 233266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Baruah, N. C., Sharma, R. P., Madhusudanan, K. P., Thyagarajan, G. (1979) Sesquiterpene lactones of Tithonia diversifolia. stereochemistry of the tagitinins and related compounds. J. Org. Chem. 44, 18311835.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Baruah, N. C., Sarma, J. C., Barua, N. C., Sarma, S., Sharma, R. P. (1994) Germination and growth inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones and a flavone from Tithonia diversifolia. Phytochemistry 36, 2936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Belz, R. G. (2007) Allelopathy in crop/weed interactions — an update. Pest Manag. Sci. 63, 308326.

  • 5.

    Bonanomi, G., Sicurezza, M. G., Caporaso, S., Esposito, A., Mazzoleni, S. (2006) Phytotoxicity dynamics of decaying plant materials. New Phytol. 169, 571578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Callaway, R. M., Ridenour, W. M. (2004) Novel weapons: invasive success and the evolution of increased competitive ability. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2, 419426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Cappuccino, N., Carpenter, D. (2005) Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive plants. Biol. Lett-UK. 1, 435458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Cappuccino, N., Arnason, J. T. (2006) Novel chemistry of invasive exotic plants. Biol. Lett-UK. 2, 189193.

  • 9.

    Chengxu, W., Mingxing, Z., Xuhui, C., Bo, Q. (2011) Review on allelopathy of exotic invasive plants. Procedia. Eng. 18, 240246.

  • 10.

    Dutta, P., Chaudhury, R. P., Sharma, R. P. (1993) Persistent efficacy of the feeding deterrents of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray against Diacrisia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). J. Environ. Biol. 14, 107112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Feng, Y., Lei, Y., Wang, R., Callaway, R. M., Valiente-Banuet, A., Inderjit, Li, Y., Zheng, Y. (2009) Evolutionary tradeoffs for nitrogen allocation to photosynthesis versus cell walls in an invasive plant. P. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 18531856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Goffin, E., Ziemons, E., de Mol, P., de Madureira, Md. C., Martins, A. P., da Cunha, A. P., Philippe, G., Tits, M., Angenot, L., Frederich, M. (2002) In vitro antiplasmodial activity of Tithonia diversifolia and identification of its main active constituent: tagitinin C. Planta Med. 68, 543545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Gu, J. Q., Gills, J. J., Park, E. J., Mata-Greenwood, E., Hawthorne, M. E., Axelrod, F., Chavez, P. I., Fong, H. H. S., Mehta, R. G., Pezzuto, J. M., Kinghorn, A. D. (2002) Sesquiterpenoids from Tithonia diversifolia with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. J. Nat. Prod. 65, 532536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Keane, R. M., Crawley, M. L. (2002) Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends. Ecol. Evol. 17, 164170.

  • 15.

    Lee, M., Liao, M., Tsai, Y., Chiu, K., Wen, H. (2011) Identification and anti-human glioblastoma activity of tagitinin C from Tithonia diversifolia methanolic extract. J. Agr. Food Chem. 59, 23472355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Liao, C., Peng, R., Luo, Y., Zhou, X., Wu, X., Fang, C., Chen, J., Li, B. (2008) Altered ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles by plant invasion: a meta-analysis. New Phytol. 177, 706714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Liao, M. H., Tsai, Y. N., Yang, C. Y., Juang, C. L., Lee, M. Y., Chang, L. H., Wen, H. C. (2013) Antihuman hepatoma Hep-G2 proliferative, apoptotic, and antimutagenic activity of tagitinin C from Tithonia diversifolia leaves. J. Nat. Med. 67, 98106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Lichtenthaler, H. K. (1996) Vegetation stress: an introduction to the stress concept in plants. J. Plant Physiol. 148, 414.

  • 19.

    Lockwood, J. L., Simberloff, D., McKinney, M. L., Holle, B. V. (2001) How many, and which, plants will invade natural areas. Biol. Invasions. 3, 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mack, R. M. (1996) Predicting the identity and fate of plant invaders: emergent and emerging approaches. Biol. Conserv. 78, 107121.

  • 21.

    Macías, F. A., Castellano, D., Molinillo, J. M. G. (2000) Search for a standard phytotoxic bioassay for allelochemicals. Selection of standard target species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 25122521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Meiners, S. J., Kong, C. H., Ladwig, L. M., Pisula, N. L., Lang, K. A. (2012) Developing an ecological context for allelopathy. Plant Ecol. 213, 18611867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Miranda, M. A. F. M., Varela, R. M., Torres, A., Molinillo, J. M. G., Gualtieri, S. C. J., Macías, F. A. (2015) Phytotoxins from Tithonia diversifolia. J. Nat. Prod. 78, 10831092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Mitchell, C. E., Power, A. G. (2003) Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens. Nature 421, 625657.

  • 25.

    Otusanya, O., Ilori, O. (2012) Phytochemical screening and the phytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray. Int. J. Biol. 4, 97101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Oyerinde, O. O., Otusanya, O. O., Akpor, O. B. (2009) Allelopathic effect of Tithonia diversifolia on the germination, growth and chlorophyll contents of maize (Zea mays L.). Sci. Res. Essays 4, 15531558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Pal, R., Kulshreshtha, D. K., Rastogi, R. P. (1976) Antileukemic and other constituents of Tithonia tagitiflora desf. J. Pharm. Sci. 65, 918920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Piyatida, P., Kato-Noguchi, H. (2010) Screening of allelopathic activity of eleven Thai medicinal plants on seedling growth of five test plant species. Asian J. Plant Sci. 9, 486491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Taiwo, L. B., Makinde, J. O. (2005) Influence of water extract of Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4, 355360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Thompson, J. D., McNeilly, T., Gray, A. J. (1991) Population variation in Spartina anglica C. E. Hubbard. I. Evidence from a common garden experiment. New Phytol. 117, 115128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Tongma, S., Kobayashi, K., Usui, K. (1999) Allelopathic activity and movement of water leachate from Mexican sunflower [Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray] leaves in soil. J. Weed Sci. Technol. 44, 5158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Tongma, S., Kobayashi, K., Usui, K. (2001) Allelopathic activity of Mexican sunflower [Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray] in soil under natural field conditions and different moisture conditions. Weed Biol. Manag. 1, 115119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation