Andrea Varga Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Eötvös Loránd University H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány P. sétány 1/c, Hungary

Search for other papers by Andrea Varga in
Current site
Google Scholar
György Szakmány Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Eötvös Loránd University H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány P. sétány 1/c, Hungary

Search for other papers by György Szakmány in
Current site
Google Scholar
, and
Béla Raucsik Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Veszprém H-8201 Veszprém, Egyetem u. 10, Hungary

Search for other papers by Béla Raucsik in
Current site
Google Scholar
Restricted access

Redeposited Eocene calcrete gravel was found in a Miocene conglomerate sequence in the Western Mecsek Mountains, S Hungary. The purpose of this paper is to describe the micromorphological and mineralogical characteristics of these rocks. A large number of calcrete thin sections were analyzed using a petrographic microscope. This study was supplemented by microchemical staining, cathode luminescence examination and X-ray diffraction methods.  The diagnostic features identified are rhizoliths (rhizocretion, root cast and root petrifaction), alveolar textures, in situ Microcodium grains, peloids, coated grains and pedogenic voids. According to these micromorphological results the studied calcrete belongs to the group of beta calcretes. The biofabric of this calcrete reflects an extensive vegetation cover and a relatively high degree of biological activity. Micromorphology and mineralogical composition of the calcrete gravels (i.e. dominance of calcite, quartz, illite±muscovite and illite/smectite) suggest a semi-arid/subhumid climate during calcrete pedogenesis. Within the Eocene calcrete gravel two main cement types have been distinguished: a meteoric vadose cement (vadose silt) and a phreatic one (drusy ferroan calcite spar). Drusy sparite is the typical cement of near-surface diagenesis, and this, together with its ferroan nature, leads to the conclusion that the main site of cementation of the Eocene calcrete was the meteoric phreatic zone.

  • Flügel, E. 1982: Microfacies Analysis of Limestones. - Spinger-Verlag, pp. 67-83.

  • Gierlowski-Kordesch, E., J.C. Gómez Fernández, N. Meléndez 1991: Carbonate and coal deposition in an alluvial-lacustrine setting: Lower Cretaceous (Weald) in the Iberian Range (east-central Spain). - In: Anadón, E, Cabrera, LI., Kelts, K. (Eds): Lacustrine Fades Analysis. Spec. Fubls Int. Ass. Sediment., Blackwell Scientific Fublications, 13, pp. 109-125.

  • Klappa, C.F. 1978: Biolithogenesis of Microcodium: elucidation. - Sedimentology, 25, pp. 489-522.

  • Klappa, C.F. 1980: Rhizoliths in terrestrial carbonates: classification, recognition, genesis and significance. - Sedimentology, 27, pp. 613-629.

  • Lelkes, Gy. 1994: Vadose Diagenetic Carbonates (Caliches) in the Sarmatian (Miocene) of Hungary. - Jubilee Volume of 20-year-old Austrian-Hungarian co-operation in geology, 2, pp. 89-104.

  • Milnes, A. R. 1992: Calcrete. - In: Martini, I. P, Chesworth, W. (Eds): Weathering, Soils & Faleosols. Elsevier, Developments in Earth Surface Processes 2, pp. 309-347.

  • Adams, A.E. 1980: Calcrete profiles in the Eyam Limestone (Carboniferous) of Derbyshire: petrology and regional significance. - Sedimentology, 27, pp. 651-660.

  • Bakacsi, Zs. 1993: Sedimentology of the freshwater limestone complex of S¨ttő. - M.Sc. Thesis at Eötvős L. University, Budapest, 108 p. (manuscript, in Hungarian)

  • Dickson, J. A. D. 1965: A modified staining technique for carbonates in thin section. - Nature, 205, pp. 587.

  • Esteban, CM. 1976: Vadose Pisolite and Caliche. - AAPG Bulletin, 60/11, pp. 2048-2057.

  • Bakacsi, Zs., A. Mindszenty, E. Hertelendi 1994: Lacustrine/palustrine fades from the Pleistocene carbonate lake of Süttő (Hungary). - IAS 15th Regional Meeting, Ischia, Italy, 13-15 April 1994, Abstract Volume, pp. 41-42.

  • Mindszenty, A., EJ. Deák 1999: Karbonátos paleotalajok a gerecsei felső-triászban (Carbonate paleosols from the Upper Triassic of the Gerecse Mountains, Hungary). - Földtani Közlöny, 129/2, pp. 213-247. (In Hungarian with English extended abstract). Mount, J. E, A. S. Cohen 1984: Petrology and geochemistry of rhizoliths from Plio-Pleistocene fluvial and marginal lacustrine deposits, East Lake Turkana, Kenya. - Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 54/1, pp. 263-275.

  • Solomon, S.T., G.M. Walkden 1985: The application of cathodoluminescence to interpreting the diagenesis of an ancient calcrete profile. - Sedimentology, 32, pp. 877-896.

  • Raucsik, B., L. Merényi 2000: Origin and environmental significance of clay minerals in the Lower Jurassic formations of the Mecsek Mts., Hungary. - Acta Geologica Hungarica, 43/4, pp. 407-431.

  • Rischák, G., I. Viczián 1974: Mineralogical factors determining the intensity of basal reflections of clay minerals. - Annual Report of Hung. Geol. Inst, for 1972, pp. 229-256. (In Hungarian).

  • Środoń, J. 1980: Precise identification of illite/smectite interstratifications by X-ray powder diffraction. - Clays and Clay Mins., 28/6, pp. 401-411.

  • Środoń, J. 1984: X-ray powder diffraction identification of illitic materials. - Clays and Clay Mins., 32, pp. 337-349.

  • Tucker, M. E., V. P Wright 1990: Carbonate Sedimentology. - Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 336-346.

  • Tucker, M. E. 1991: Sedimentary Petrology, An Introduction to the Origin of Sedimentary Rocks. - Blackwell Science, Second edition, 260 p.

  • Varga, A. B. 2000: Újabb adatok a mecseki paleogén képződmények ismeretéhez: eocén karbonátos paleotalaj kavicsok a nyugat-mecseki miocén konglomerátumból (Eocene calcrete gravel of the Miocene conglomerate from the western Mecsek Mountains). - Thesis of the National Scientific Conference of Students, Eötvös, L. University Budapest, Dept. of Petrology and Geochemistry, 45 p. (in Hungarian with English abstract).

  • Wright, V.P., M.E. Tucker 1991: Calcretes: an Introduction. - In: Wright, V.P, Tucker, M.E. (Eds): Calcretes. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Reprint Series Vol. 2 of the IAS, pp. 1-22.

    Calcretes. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Reprint Series Vol. 2 of the IAS , () 1 -22 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Varga, A., Gy. Szakmány, B. Raucsik, M. Kedves, S. Józsa 2002: Eocén kalkrét kavicsok a nyugat-mecseki miocén konglomerátumból (Eocene calcrete pebbles from Miocene conglomerate, western Mecsek Mountains, Hungary). - Földtani Közlöny, 132,1, pp. 57-82 (in Hungarian with English abstract).

  • Watanabe, T. 1981: Identification of illite/montmorillonite interstratifications by X-ray powder diffraction. - J. Min. Soc. Japan Spec. Issue, 15, pp. 32-41.

  • Wéber, B. 1982: A Mecsekalja árok neogén és paleogén képződményeiről (On the Neogene and Paleogene of the Mecsekalja graben (S-Hungary). - Földtani Közlöny, 112, pp. 209-240 (in Hungarian with English abstract).

  • Wéber, B. 1985: Paleogén rétegek Szigetvár környékén (Paleogene beds in the vicinity of Szigetvár (S-Hungary). - Földtani Közlöny, 115/1-2, pp. 1-211 (in Hungarian with English abstract).

  • Wright, V.P. 1986: The role of fungal biomineralization in the formation of Early Carboniferous soil fabrics. - Sedimentology, 33, pp. 831-838.

  • Collapse
  • Expand

Acta Geologica Hungarica
Language English
Year of
changed title
per Year
per Year
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia  
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0236-5278 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2594 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Dec 2023 23 2 0
Jan 2024 17 6 0
Feb 2024 20 1 0
Mar 2024 11 1 0
Apr 2024 4 0 0
May 2024 3 0 0
Jun 2024 0 0 0