View More View Less
  • 1 H-7633 Pécs, Hajnóczy József u. 1, Hungary
  • 2 H-7633 Pécs, Hajnóczy József u. 1, Hungary
Restricted access

The Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation, known for a long time at surface in the western part of the Mecsek Mts, SE Transdanubia, was encountered by several boreholes in the second half of the 20th century in a large part of SE Transdanubia, during exploration for uranium ore in the Upper Permian formations in its subcrop. The formation is made up of five informal lithologic units, from the base upward the "main conglomerate", the "gravelly sandstone", the "pale sandstone" with "conglomerate 2" at its base, then the "red-brown siltstone and sandstone" and at the top the "variegated sandstone" (units "a, b, c, d, e"). Grain size becomes finer upsection, the grains are medium-rounded, and sorting generally improves upward. Planar cross-bedding of varying size is characteristic. The Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation occurs in two types of development. In the case of complete development, all the lithologic units are present, but the lower two ("a+b") do not overlap the Late Permian-Early Triassic Kővágószőlős Sandstone Formation. The case in which the formation is only built up of units "c+d+e" is called incomplete development. In both cases erosional unconformity and hiatus occur between the formation and its underlying unit, while showing continuous transition toward its cover, the Patacs Siltstone Formation. On the basis of the sedimentological features the main conglomerate and the gravelly sandstone ("a+b") were deposited in fluvial facies, "c" in wave-dominated, and "d" and "e" in tide-dominated delta facies. In the clast composition of the Jakabhegy Sandstone, the quartz predominates, the amount of K-feldspars is much smaller and plagioclase is almost completely absent. The rock debris is derived from metamorphic, acidic volcanic and plutonic rocks. According to the quartz/feldspar ratio, the most mature sandstone layers can be found in the central beds of unit "c" and appear in incomplete development at the base of the sequence, locally in quartz arenite quality. The fossil content of the Jakabhegy Sandstone consists almost exclusively of microflora found in the gray layers of the two upper units ("d+e"). According to the palynological investigation, unit "d" and the lower part of unit "e" represent the Spathian substage of the Olenekian stage, while the upper part of "e" already belongs to the Lower Anisian. Downsection, microflora-free red sediments are encountered down to the layers below the upper member of the underlying formation. In the microflora found in these lowest levels, Lower Triassic spores appear with dramatic suddenness and in remarkable quantity, alongside decrease in the amount of Upper Permian pollen.

  • Bérczi-Makk, A. 1998 Stratigraphy of Triassic and Jurassic formations of Hungarian Plain and Zemplén Mountains. - In: Bérczi, I., Á. Jámbor (Eds): Magyarország geológiai képzodblac;dményeinek rétegtana. - MOL Rt. and Hung. Geol. Inst., Budapest, 517 p. (In Hungarian.)

  • Vadász, E., 1960: MagyarorszÁg földtana, 2. (átdolgozott) kiadás (Geology of Hungary, 2nd [revised] edition). - Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 646 p. (In Hungarian.)

  • Várszegi, K., 1963: Jelentés az alsó-triász (szeizi) réz anomáliákról a Mecsek hegységben (Report on the Lower Triassic [Seisian] copper anomalies in the Mecsek Mts). - Manuscript, MÉV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Visher, G., S. 1969: Grain size distribution and depositional processes. - Jour. Sed. Pet., 39/3, Tulsa.

  • Visscher, H., 1971: The Permian and Triassic of the Kingscourt outlier, Ireland. - Bull. Geol. Surv. Ireland, Spec. paper, 1, pp. 1 - 114 .

    'The Permian and Triassic of the Kingscourt outlier, Ireland ' () 1 Bull. Geol. Surv. Ireland, Spec. paper : 1 -114.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Orlowska-Zwolinska, T. 1985: Palynological zones of the Polish epicontinental Triassic. - Bull. Polish Acad. Sci. Earth Sci., 33 /3-4, pp. 107 - 114 .

    'Palynological zones of the Polish epicontinental Triassic ' () 33 Bull. Polish Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. : 107 -114.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • J.BeerbowerR. 1964: Cyclothems and cyclic depositional mechanism in alluvial plain sedimentation. - In: D.MerramM. (Ed.): Symposium on Cyclic Sedimentation. - Kansas Geol. Surv. Bull., 169/1, pp. 31-42.

  • Bérczi-Makk, A. 1974: Geology of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement of Nagykodblac;rös-Kálmánhegy. - Földt. Közl., 104/4, pp. 401 - 413 .

    'Geology of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement of Nagykodblac;rös-Kálmánhegy ' () 104 Földt. Közl. : 401 -413.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barabás-Stuhl, Á. 1993: Palynological revaluation of Lower Triassic and Lower Anisian of Southeast Transdanubia. - Acta Geol. Hung., 36/4, pp. 405 - 458 .

    'Palynological revaluation of Lower Triassic and Lower Anisian of Southeast Transdanubia ' () 36 Acta Geol. Hung. : 405 -458.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bleahu, M., G. Mantea, S. Bordea, S. Panin, M. Stefanescu, K. Sikic, J. Haas, S. Kovács, Cs. Péró, A. Bérczi-Makk, Gy. Konrád, E. Nagy, E. Rálisch-Felgenhauer, Á. Török 1996: Triassic facies types, evolution and paleogeographic relations of the Tisza Megaunit. - Acta Geol. Hung., 37/3-4, pp. 187 - 234 .

    'Triassic facies types, evolution and paleogeographic relations of the Tisza Megaunit ' () 37 Acta Geol. Hung. : 187 -234.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peters, K., F. 1862: Über den Lias von Fünfkirchen. - Sitzungsb. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Mat. Nat. Kl., 46/1, pp. 241 - 293 .

    'Über den Lias von Fünfkirchen ' () 46 Sitzungsb. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Mat. Nat. Kl. : 241 -293.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ravasz, Cs. 1977: A Cun-1. fúrás földtani vizsgálatának értékelése (Evaluation of the geologic investigation of borehole Cun-1). - Manuscript, MÉV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Schulz, E., 1964: Sporae und Pollen aus dem Mittleren Buntsandstein des germanischen Beckens. - Montsb. Deutsch. Ak. Wiss., 6/8, pp. 59 - 60 .

    'Sporae und Pollen aus dem Mittleren Buntsandstein des germanischen Beckens ' () 6 Montsb. Deutsch. Ak. Wiss. : 59 -60.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Broglio-Loriga, C., F. Góczán, J. Haas, K. Lenner, C. Neri, A. Oravecz-Scheffer, R. Posenato, I. Szabó, Á. Tóth-Makk 1990: The Lower Triassic sequences of the Dolomites (Italy) and Transdanubian Mid-Mountains (Hungary) and their correlation. - Mem. Sci. Geol. Padova, 42, pp. 41 - 103 .

    'The Lower Triassic sequences of the Dolomites (Italy) and Transdanubian Mid-Mountains (Hungary) and their correlation ' () 42 Mem. Sci. Geol. Padova : 41 -103.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brugman, W., A. 1986: Late Scythian and Middle Triassic palynostratigraphy in the Alpine Realm. - Albertina, 5, pp. 19 - 20 .

    'Late Scythian and Middle Triassic palynostratigraphy in the Alpine Realm ' () 5 Albertina : 19 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haas, J., G. Császár, S. Kovács, A. Vörös 1990: Evolution of the western part of the Tethys as reflected by the geological formations of Hungary. - Acta Geod. Geoph. Mont. Hung., 25/3-4, pp. 325 - 344 .

    'Evolution of the western part of the Tethys as reflected by the geological formations of Hungary ' () 25 Acta Geod. Geoph. Mont. Hung. : 325 -344.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haas, J., Cs. Péró 2004: Mesozoic evolution of the Tisza Mega-unit. - Int. J. Earth Sci., 93, pp. 297 - 313 .

    'Mesozoic evolution of the Tisza Mega-unit ' () 93 Int. J. Earth Sci. : 297 -313.

  • Jámbor, Á. 1962: Jelentés a Ny-mecseki terëlet 1:10.000-es földtani térképezésérodblac;l (Report on the geologic mapping of the W Mecsek area at a scale of 1:10,000). - Manuscript, MEV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Jámbor, Á. 1964: Jelentés a Mecsek-hegység alsó-permi képzodblac;dményeirodblac;l (Report on the Lower Permian Formations of the Mecsek Mts.). - Manuscript, MÉV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Kassai, M., 1969: A jakabhegyi homokkodblac; fácies és korkérdése (Facies and age question of the Jakabhegy Sandstone). - Manuscript, Candidature dissertation, MÉV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Kassai, M., 1976: Permische Bildungen im nördlichen Vorraum des Villanyer Gebirges. - Geol. Hung. Ser. Geol., 17, pp. 11 - 109. (In Hungarian with German text.)

    'Permische Bildungen im nördlichen Vorraum des Villanyer Gebirges ' () 17 Geol. Hung. Ser. Geol. : 11 -109.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Klaus, W., 1964: Zur sporenstratigraphischen Einstufung von gipsführenden Schichten in Bohrungen. Erdöl. - Zeitschr., 4, pp. 3 - 16 .

    'Zur sporenstratigraphischen Einstufung von gipsführenden Schichten in Bohrungen ' () 4 Erdöl. - Zeitschr. : 3 -16.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vadász, E., 1935: A Mecsekhegység (Das Mecsek Gebirge). - Stádium, 208 p., Budapest. (In Hungarian with German text.)

  • Vadász, E., 1957: Földtörtenet és földfejlodblac;dés (Earth history and earth evolution). - Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 847 p. (In Hungarian.)

  • Yarosenko, O., P., L. P. Golubeva 1981: Palinologicheskaja harakteristika nyisnyetriasovüh otlozhenyij Timanopechoroskoj provincii i sopredelnüh rajonov (Palynologic analysis of Lower Triassic sediments of Timan-Pechora province and the neghbouring regions). - Izvestyija A. N. CCCP, ser. geolog ., 10, Moskva.

    'Palinologicheskaja harakteristika nyisnyetriasovüh otlozhenyij Timanopechoroskoj provincii i sopredelnüh rajonov (Palynologic analysis of Lower Triassic sediments of Timan-Pechora province and the neghbouring regions) ' () 10 Izvestyija A. N. CCCP ser. geolog . .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Parti, G., 1989: Red siltstone strata of the Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation. - Földt. Közl., 119/1, pp. 59 - 67 .

    'Red siltstone strata of the Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation ' () 119 Földt. Közl. : 59 -67.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Miall, A., D. 1984: The Sedimentary Basin - Princyples of Analysis. - Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, Tokyo, 940 p.

    The Sedimentary Basin - Princyples of Analysis , () 940.

  • Nagy, E., 1958: A szürke-, a konglomerátum alatti és a jakabhegyi homokkodblac; rétegcsoport anyagvizsgálata (Material test of the gray, the infra-conglomerate and the Jakabhegy sandstone layer groups). - Manuscript, MÉV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Nagy, E., 1969: Triasbildungen des Mecsek-Gebirges. - Jahrbuch der Ungarischen Geologischen Anstalt, 51 / 1, 198 p.

    'Triasbildungen des Mecsek-Gebirges ' () 51 Jahrbuch der Ungarischen Geologischen Anstalt : 198.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Orlowska-Zwolinska, T. 1984: Palynostratigraphy of the Buntsandstein in section of Western Poland. - Acta Paleont. Polonica, 29/3-4, pp. 161 - 194 .

    'Palynostratigraphy of the Buntsandstein in section of Western Poland ' () 29 Acta Paleont. Polonica : 161 -194.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Csicsák, J., Gy. Szakmány 1998: Petrological-geochemical investigation of the uppermost part ("transitional" layers) of the Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation. - Földt. Közl., 128/4, pp. 535 - 553. (In Hungarian.)

    'Petrological-geochemical investigation of the uppermost part ("transitional" layers) of the Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation ' () 128 Földt. Közl. : 535 -553.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dobosi, I., 1980: A mecseki felsodblac;-perm és alsó-triász képzodblac;dmények fácies vizsgálata a szemcsenagyság eloszlás alapján (Facies investigation of Upper Permian and Lower Triassic formations of the Mecsek Mts based on grain size distribution). - Manuscript, MÉV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Fazekas, V., 1987: Mineralogical composition of Permian and Lower Triassic clastics from Mecsek Mts. - Földt. Közl., 117/1, pp. 11 - 30 .

    'Mineralogical composition of Permian and Lower Triassic clastics from Mecsek Mts ' () 117 Földt. Közl. : 11 -30.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fazekas, V., 1989: Mineralogical-petrological observations on the Southeastern Transdanubian of Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation. - Földt. Közl., 119, pp. 359 - 371 .

    'Mineralogical-petrological observations on the Southeastern Transdanubian of Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation ' () 119 Földt. Közl. : 359 -371.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fisher, M., J. 1979: The Triassic palynofloral succession in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. - AASP Contrib., 58, pp. 83 - 100 .

    'The Triassic palynofloral succession in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago ' () 58 AASP Contrib. : 83 -100.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Góczán, F., A. Oravecz-Scheffer, I. Szabó 1986: Biostratigraphic zonation of the Lower Triassic in the Transdanubian Central Range. - Acta Geol. Hung., 29/3-4, pp. 233 - 259 .

    'Biostratigraphic zonation of the Lower Triassic in the Transdanubian Central Range ' () 29 Acta Geol. Hung. : 233 -259.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haas, J., F. Góczán, A. Oravecz-Scheffer, Á. Barabás-Stuhl, Gy. Majoros, A. Bérczi-Makk 1986: Permian-Triassic boundary in Hungary. - Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital. 34, pp. 221 - 241 .

    'Permian-Triassic boundary in Hungary ' () 34 Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital. : 221 -241.

  • Nagy, E., I. Nagy 1976: Triasbildungen des Villányer Gebirges. - Geol. Hung., 17, pp. 113 - 252 .

    'Triasbildungen des Villányer Gebirges ' () 17 Geol. Hung. : 113 -252.

  • Balogh, K., (Ed.) 1991: Szedimentológia I-II-III (Sedimentology I-II-III). - Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. (In Hungarian.)

    Szedimentológia I-II-III (Sedimentology I-II-III) , ().

  • Barabás, A., 1955: Permian formations in the Mecsek. - Manuscript, Candidature dissertation, Hung. Acad. Sci., Budapest. (In Hungarian.)

  • Barabás-Stuhl, A. 1975: Contribution to the biostratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic in Transdanubia (W Hungary). - Földt. Közl., 105/3, pp. 320 - 334 .

    'Contribution to the biostratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic in Transdanubia (W Hungary) ' () 105 Földt. Közl. : 320 -334.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Antonescu, E., D. Patrulius, I. Popescu 1976: Corrélation palinologique préliminaire des quelques formations de Roumaine attribuées au Trias inférieur. - Dari de Seame Sedint., 62, pp. 3 - 30 .

    'Corrélation palinologique préliminaire des quelques formations de Roumaine attribuées au Trias inférieur ' () 62 Dari de Seame Sedint. : 3 -30.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Balogh, K., A. Barabás 1972: The Carboniferous and Permian of Hungary. - Acta Miner. Petr. Univ, Szeged., 20/2, pp. 191 - 207 .

    'The Carboniferous and Permian of Hungary ' () 20 Acta Miner. Petr. Univ, Szeged. : 191 -207.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barabás-Stuhl, Á. 1981: Microflora of the Permian and Lower Triassic sediments of Mecsek Mountains (South Hungary). - Acta Geol. Hung., 24/1, pp. 49 - 97 .

    'Microflora of the Permian and Lower Triassic sediments of Mecsek Mountains (South Hungary) ' () 24 Acta Geol. Hung. : 49 -97.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bérczi-Makk, A., G. Császár, A. Nusszer 1996: Stratigraphy and geological evolution of the Mesozoic basement of the Mecsek Zone in the Central Part of the Great Hungarian Plain (East Central Hungary). - Földt. Közl., 126/2-3, pp 185-207.

    'Stratigraphy and geological evolution of the Mesozoic basement of the Mecsek Zone in the Central Part of the Great Hungarian Plain (East Central Hungary) ' () 126 Földt. Közl. .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Blatt, H., G. Middleton, R. Murray 1972: Origin of Sedimentary Rocks. - Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 634 p.

    Origin of Sedimentary Rocks , () 634.

  • Bleahu, M., S. Bordeau, M. Lupu, A. Stefan, D. Patrulius, St. Panin 1981: The structure of the Apuseni Mountains. - XII. Cong. Carp. Balk. Geol. Assoc., Guide to excursion B3., Bucharest, 107 p.

  • Bogacheva, M., I., K. V. Vinogradova 1973: Sravnyityelnaja harakteristika sporovo-pülcevüch komplexov rannyevo triasa centralnovo Prikaspia, Juzsnovo Mangüslaka i Germanskovo Bassejna. Palinologia mezofita (Comparative analysis of Early Triassic spore-pollen complexes in Central Pricaspian, Southern Mangyshlak and German Basins. Palynology of the Mesophytic). - Trudü Mezdunarodnoj palinologicheskoj konferencii, Izd. Nauka, pp. 19 - 22 .

  • Böckh, J., 1876: Pécs városa környékének földtani és vízi viszonyai (Geology and hydrology of Pécs). - Ann. Hung. Geol. Inst., 4, Budapest.

    'Pécs városa környékének földtani és vízi viszonyai (Geology and hydrology of Pécs) ' () 4 Ann. Hung. Geol. Inst. .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tozer, E., T. 1967: A Standard for Triassic Time. - Bull. Geol. Surv. Canada, 156, 103 p.

    'A Standard for Triassic Time ' () 156 Bull. Geol. Surv. Canada : 103.

  • Török, Á. 1998 Triassic stratigraphy in Mecsek and Villány zones. - In: Bérczi, I., Á. Jámbor (Eds): Magyarország geológiai képzodblac;dményeinek rétegtana. - MOL Rt. and Hung. Geol. Inst., Budapest, 517 p. (In Hungarian.)

  • Szabó, J. 1965: Geologische Auswertung der Angaben über die Schrägschichtung des Oberperms and Unterseis im Mecsekgebirge (Südungarn). - Földt. Közl., 95/1, pp. 40 - 46 .

    'Geologische Auswertung der Angaben über die Schrägschichtung des Oberperms and Unterseis im Mecsekgebirge (Südungarn) ' () 95 Földt. Közl. : 40 -46.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szederkényi, T., 1963: Földtani vizsgálatok a Mecsek hegység déli elodblac;terében, Szilágy és Bátaszék környékén (Geologic investigations in the southern foreland of Mecsek Mts in the neighborhood of Szilágy and Bátaszék). - Manuscript, Candidature dissertation, MÉV, Pécs. (In Hungarian.)

  • Schulz, E., 1966: Erläuterungen zu den sporenstratigraphischen Tabellen vom Zechstein bis zum Oligozän. - Mitt. Zrnt. Geol. Inst., 8, pp. 7 - 20 .

    'Erläuterungen zu den sporenstratigraphischen Tabellen vom Zechstein bis zum Oligozän ' () 8 Mitt. Zrnt. Geol. Inst. : 7 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar