Author: Csaba Varga
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  • 1 Hungarian Academy of Sciences Institute for Legal Studies, Centre for Social Sciences H-1250 Budapest P.O.B. 25 Hungary
  • 2 Pázmány Péter Catholic University Department of Legal Philosophy H-1428 Budapest 8 P.O.B. 6 Hungary
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The fate of Marxism in the Soviet Union and the people’s democracies as the former’s extension owing to post-WWII occupation was from the beginning sealed by Bolshevism, that is, the politico-ideological domination and use of the scholarly domain as well, made to self-close in a merely justificatory role. There may have been attempts at opening, even if only conceivable within—i.e. preserving at the same time—this framework function. In the present conspectus, the limiting positions are occupied by the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic, completed by after-1968 Czechoslovakia, as well as Yugoslavia and pre-1968 Czechoslovakia, representing the substitute-to-religion dogmatic side, exclusively politically motivated in the former and subordinated to a humanising tendency in the latter case, on the one hand, and Poland, dedicated to a purely analytical approach, in which Marxism has simply no relevance, on the other. Hungary, treated in an earlier paper by the author, was in-between, taking Marxism seriously but mostly as a methodology, and thereby able to foster live debates. All that notwithstanding, there has been quite a few progressive moves also in Romania and Bulgaria in this specific academic field. Turning topoi of the discussions were, chronologically but recurrent transubstantiatedly, the exclusivity of Vyshinsky’s socialist normativism, the consequences ensuing from the law’s superstructural nature, the discontinuity vs. continuity of law in historical development, and, in the background, the dilemma of the ontological/epistemological understanding of Marxism, the latter standing for a rigid Leninist reducibility of law to its material substratum as the product of sheer reflection, and the former enabling to develop the law’s relative autonomy as in Lukács’ posthumous ontology. On the final analysis, all these forced paths made a whole region’s efforts to be belated as compared to international developments, the fact notwithstanding those outstanding achievements were born especially on the fields of legal ontology and sociology, as well as the legal methodology and particularly that of the comparison of laws.

  • Cf. Varga, Cs.: Codification as a Socio-historical Phenomenon. 2nd {reprint} ed. with Annex and Postscript. Budapest, 2011. and http://drcsabavarga.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/vargacodification-as-a-socio-historical-phenomenon-1991/ . Ch. VIII para. 2, 216 et seq. As a tactic concession, after 1941 Stalin took a number of measures, although as mere lip-service, in order to increase the chance that war efforts, having started from a weakened position, might transform into an all-popular patriotic cause for the defence of the Soviet homeland, thanks to the regime’s temporarily encouraging religious and national sentiments. Meanwhile, however, he rigorously kept basic strategy unchanged in view of preventing any concession from spreading over to ideological areas, compromising his terroristic rule

  • 2_For an overall-but sketchy-survey of the entire region, spanning over their whole modern period of one the the half centuries, see Varga, Cs.: Philosophy of Law in Central and Eastern Europe: A Sketch of History. Acta Juridica Hungarica, 41 (2000), 17–25.

    2 Varga Cs. , 'Philosophy of Law in Central and Eastern Europe: A Sketch of History ' (2000 ) 41 Acta Juridica Hungarica : 17 -25.

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  • Zakon i sud: Vestnik Russkogo iuridicheskogo obshchestva [Statute and court: Review of the Russian legal community]. [Riga] I–VIII (1929–1938). [Reprint: Riga, 2000.]

  • Internationale Zeitschrift für die Theorie des Rechts [Brünn], I–XII (1926-1938). Cf. also http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/František_Weyr_(právník)

  • With the collection of Varga, Cs. (ed.): Marxian Legal Theory. The International Library of Essays in Law and Legal Theory: Schools. Aldershot, etc. and New York, 1993, I attempted a late breakthrough.

    '', in Marxian Legal Theory , (1993 ) -.

  • First of all, Aleksandrov, N. G.: Sushchnost’ prava [The essence of law]. Moscow, 1950; Sergei Sergeievich Alekseyev-S. S.-Kerimov, D. A.-Nedbailo, P. E.: Metodologitsheskie problemi pravovedeniya [The methodological problems of jurisprudence]. Pravovedenie, (1954) 4. 15 et seq. and Sheindlin, B. V.: Sushchnost’ sovetskogo prava [The essence of Soviet law]. Leningrad, 1959. As a collection, cf. Hazard, J. N. (ed.): Soviet Legal Philosophy. Twentieth Century Legal Philosophy Series 5, Cambridge (Mass.), 1951. The Yugoslavian pattern, as exemplified by Lukić, R. D.: Teorija drzáve i prava [Theory of state and law]. I–II. Beograd, 1954. [reprint: Beograd, 1995], followed a most severly dogmatic path.

    Aleksandrov N. G. , '', in Sushchnost’ prava , (1950 ) -.

  • Following Vyshinsky, A. Y.: Voprosy prava i gosudarstva u K. Marksa [Questions of law and state at Marx]. Moscow, 1938, see Vyshinsky, A. Y.: Voprosy teorii gosudarstva i prava [Questions of the theory of state and law]. Moscow, 1949. See also Stalgevitsh, A. K.: K voprosu o ponyatii prava [To the issue of the notion of law]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1948) 7, 49–63 and Strogovich, M. S. et al.: Teoriya gosudarstva i prava [Theory of state and law]. Moscow, 1949.

    Vyshinsky A. Y. , '', in Voprosy prava i gosudarstva u K. Marksa , (1938 ) -.

  • See, e.g. Kelsen, H.: The Communist Theory of Law. New York and London, 1955; Lapenna, I.: State and Law: Soviet and Yugoslav Theory. London, 1964, and Stoyanovitch, K.: La philosophie du droit en U.R.S.S. (1917–1953). Bibliothèque de Philosophie du Droit IV, Paris, 1965.

  • Kechekian, S. F.: Normy prava i pravootnosheniya. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1955) 2, 23–32; Piontkovskiy, A. A.: Nekotorye voprosy obshchei teorii gosudarstva i prava [Some issues of the general theory of state and law]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1956/1, 14–28 as well as Stalgevitsh, A. K.: Nekotorye voprosy teorii sotsialisticheskikh pravovykh otnoshenii [Some questions relating to socialist legal relationships]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1957) 2, 2 et seq., in criticism of which Farber, I. E.: K voprosu o ponyatii prava [To the issue of the notion of law]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1957) 1, 38–50 proved a rear echelon. See also Kerimow, A. A.-Gläss, H.- Leymann, J.-Wiese, A.: Über den Begriff des sozialistischen Rechts. Staat und Recht, (1958) 11, 1150–1154 and Zhogin, N. V.: Vyshinsky’s Distortions in Soviet Legal Theory and Practice. Soviet Law and Government, 4 (1965) 2, 48–56.

    Kechekian S. F. , 'Normy prava i pravootnosheniya ' (1955 ) 2 Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo : 23 -32.

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  • For example Iavich, L. S.: A Contribution to the Question of the Methodology of Jurisprudence. Soviet Law and Government, 2 (1963) 2, 11–16 and Strogovich, M. S.: Problems of Methodology in Jurisprudence. Soviet Law and Government, 4 (1966) 4, 13–22. The early and pioneering achievement by Veingold, Yu. Yu.: Pravo kak sotsiologicheskaya kategoriya [Law as sociological category]. Frunze, 1962, remained unheard off and unshared by in its temporary Soviet medium.

    Iavich L. S. , 'A Contribution to the Question of the Methodology of Jurisprudence ' (1963 ) 2 Soviet Law and Government : 11 -16.

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  • Cf., as a bibliographical background material, Knapp, V.: La philosophie du droit dans les pays Socialistes. In: Klibansky, R. (ed.): Contemporary Philosophy. A Survey. Firenze, 1971. 156–169.

    , Knapp V. , '', in Contemporary Philosophy. A Survey , (1971 ) -.

  • For example Tumanov, V. A.: Contemporary Anti-Marxism and the Theory of Law. Soviet Law and Government, 8 (1969) 1, 3–20.

    Tumanov V. A. , 'Contemporary Anti-Marxism and the Theory of Law ' (1969 ) 8 Soviet Law and Government : 3 -20.

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  • Except for some theoretical and critical papers written by A. M. Naschitz with a passion of radicalism yet preserving theoretical ambitions all along, e.g. Critica unei »critici« burgheze a teoriei marxist-leniniste a statului şi dreptului: cu priviere la lucrările lui H. Kelsen: Teoria politică a bolşevismului şi Teoria comunistă a dreptului [Criticism of a bourgeois »critic« on the Marxist-Leninist theory of state and law]. Studii şi cercetári juridice, (1958) 2, 29–58. and Filozofia existenţialista a dreptului — filozofie a pseudodreptului şi a lichidării legalitătii: In legatura cu lucrarea lui G. Cohn: »Existenţialismul şi ştiinţá dreptului« [Existentialist philosophy of law as the philosophy of pseudo-law and of the liquidation of legality]. Studii şi cercetári juridice, (1961) 1, 25–54.

  • There were exceptions nevertheless. These included the integral publication of T. Živanović’s non-Marxist oeuvre—Sistem sintetièke filozofije prava [The system of a synthetical philosophy of law]. I–III. Belgrad, 1922, 1951, 1959-, and, above all, O. Weinberger’s stand of a revolutionising force—Die Sollsatzproblematik in der modernen Logik. Praha, 1958—which, stirring up huge debates even with its repercussions, pointed out that ought-propositions are not cognitive categories and, therefore, are not to be characterised by either truth or falsity. By the way, it is just this sensitive issue that became the critical test of the Leninian so-called reflection theory all through the Socialist world. For my attempt similar to the one above, rejected in my homeland for reasons of prevailing dogmatism as unacceptable from the outset, see Varga, Cs.: A magatartási szabály és az objektív igazság kérdése [Rule of behaviour and the question of objective truth] {a collection of papers from 1964 to 1994, bound to remain unpublished mostly for political reasons}. [1964] In: Varga, Cs.: Útkeresés: Kísérletek — kéziratban [Searching for a path: Unpublished essays]. Jogfilozófiák, Budapest, 2001. 4–18. The query was positively answered-exclusively from the viewpoint of formal logic, by the way-by Loeser, F.: Zur Frage der Wahrheit in der Moral. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, 9 (1963) 9, 1104 et seq.

  • This resulted in a practical division of labour according to personal gifts and chosen career paths. For instance, in Poland, Z. Ziembinski, A. Podgórecki and J. Wróblewski, as well as K. Opałek and M. Borucka-Arctowa rarely abandoned the proper terrain of theoretical or empirical scholarship, while the oeuvre of the then-director of the Institute of Legal Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, A. Łopatka, scarcely treated any genuinely scientific problem at all.

  • For the overview’s Hungarian part in details, cf. Varga, Cs.: Philosophising on Law under the Umbrella of Marxism in Hungary. Acta Juridica Hungarica, 53 (2012), 265–286.

    Varga Cs. , 'Philosophising on Law under the Umbrella of Marxism in Hungary ' (2012 ) 53 Acta Juridica Hungarica : 265 -286.

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  • In Hungary, it was by no mere chance, therefore, that besides Hegel, Thomas Mann became the stylistic ideal, as a prerequisite of survival, for the theoreticians at the Institute for Legal Studies of the Academy of Sciences. Thanks to this, censors of the Communist Party central cultural bureau (headed by György Aczél and contributed to by, among others, Ildikó Lendvai, later faction leader, then president, of the Socialist Party that governed the country for twelve years since the fall of Communism in 1990) preferred in fact withdrawing us from their range of actual control to bothering with our overcomplicated abstractions. At the same time, for the Institute staff, any participation in debates in the public fora of journalism was strictly prohibited, as the only available means of corporate self-defence from political control.

  • As to Hungary, research in the law on the state by, e.g. Ottó Bihari and István Kovács, were often in the focus of international press interest-true, not without political overtones but still within a scientific context. Owing to his commitment to modernisation and wide personal reputation in sociology, pieces by Kálmán Kulcsár were much sought-after in the broadest intellectual circles. As to personal memory, my collection on Jog és filozófia: Antológia a század első felének polgári jogelméleti irodalma köréből [Law and philosophy: An anthology of the first half of 20th century western legal theories]. Budapest, 1981 with translations of R. Stammler, E. Ehrlich, F. Kantorowicz, L. Petrazycki, M. Weber, F. Somló, Fr. Gény, G. del Vecchio, G. Radbruch, H. Kelsen, B. Cardozo, R. Pound, J. Frank, K. Olivecrona had aroused nation-wide intellectual interest (relaxing the practically absolute isolation of law from topics debated in general public fora at the time). It was only subsequently, after the collapse of the regime, that I could gain some idea of how many people, in addition to practicing lawyers, studied my legal-philosophical treatment on Lukács-Varga, Cs.: A jog helye Lukács György világképében. Gyorsuló Idő, Budapest, 1981, in English, The Place of Law in Lukács’ World Concept. [1985] 3rd [reprint] ed. with Postface. Budapest, 2012 and http:// drcsabavarga.wordpress.com/2012/03/13/the-place-of-law-in-lukacs-world-concept-19852012/ .-, and mostly without (at least not exclusively) the aim of obtaining par excellence law-related knowledge but owing to its widely known intention to use Marxism as a Trojan horse in an eventual and latent transcendence of Marxism

  • For example Rechtsbegriff und Rechtsnorm: Internationales Symposium des Instituts für Staats- und Rechtstheorie vom 12. bis 14. 5. 1966. in Jena. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena: Gesellschafts- und Sprachwissenschaftliche Reihe, 15 (1966), 405–476. and Gollnick, R.: Internationales Symposium in Jena zum sozialistischen Rechtsbegriff. Staat und Recht, (1966) 8, 1336–1345.

  • Nedbailo, P. E.: Primenenie sovetskih pravovykh norm [The application of Soviet legal norms]. Moscow, 1960, as the initiation of comparativism, Zivs, S. L.: O metode sravnitelnogo issledovaniya v nauka o gosudarstve i prave [On the method of comparative investigations in the science of state and law]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1964) 3, 23 et seq.; Kazimirchuk, V. P.: Pravo i metody ego izucheniya [Law and the methods of its research]. Moscow, 1965; Babiy, B. M. (ed.): Konkretno-sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya v pravovoi nauke [Concrete-sociological research in legal science]. Kiev, 1967; Jawitsch, L.: The General Theory of Law: Social and Philosophical Problems. Moscow, 1981. Developments are always uneven. For the sake of balance it has to be pointed that the Soviet Union was also the scene of both pioneering and progressive initiatives in, e.g. launching research on the law’s logical and linguistic aspects and a Marxising re-foundation of legal axiologism. See, e.g. in result of the debate on the magisterial book of Drobnitsky, O. G.: Mir ozhivskhikh predmetov: Problema tzennost’i i marksistkaya filosofiya [The world of revivified objects: The problem of value and Marxist philosophy]. Moscow, 1967; Balakhina, I. F.: Problemy tsennost’e - vnimanie posledovatelei [The problem of values]. Voprosy filosofii, (1965) 9, 153–154.

    Nedbailo P. E. , '', in Primenenie sovetskih pravovykh norm , (1960 ) -.

  • For example Cosmovici, P.: Traits spécifiques du concept du droit relevés par la science juridique de Roumanie. Revue roumaine des sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridiques, 22 (1978), 51–63.

    Cosmovici P. , 'Traits spécifiques du concept du droit relevés par la science juridique de Roumanie ' (1978 ) 22 Revue roumaine des sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridiques : 51 -63.

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  • An outstanding example is provided for this by laying the foundations of the way how legal technique is to be understood. Cf., by Naschitz, A. M.- Fodor, I.: Rolul practicii judiciare în formarea şi perfecţionarea normelor dreptului Socialist [The role of judicial practice in formation and perfection of Socialist legal norms]. Bucureşti, 1961, and Conştiinţa juridică Socialistă [Socialist legal consciousness]. Bucureşti, 1964, as well as Tehnica legislativă şi metodologia în drept [Legislative technique and legal methodology]. Studii şi certetări juridice, 13 (1968) 1, 45–57.

    Fodor I. , '', in Rolul practicii judiciare în formarea şi perfecţionarea normelor dreptului Socialist , (1961 ) -.

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  • For example Lukić, R. D.: Teorija države i prava. II: Teorija prava. Beograd, 1957. 42–47. restricted “regulation in a legal form” to cases alone where antagonistic class conflicts were at stake. For differing directions, see, e.g. Perić, B.: Pravna znanost i dijalektika: Osnove za suvremenu filozofiju prava [Legal knowledge and dialectics: Foundations of contemporary philosophy of law]. Zagreb, 1962, and 6. izd. Biblioteka Udžbenici 156, Zagreb, 1990.

    Lukić R. D. , '', in Teorija države i prava. II: Teorija prava , (1957 ) -.

  • For example Lakatoš, M.: Otázky tvorby práva v socialistické spoleènosti [Questions of lawmaking in socialist society]. Praha, 1963.

    Lakatoš M. , '', in Otázky tvorby práva v socialistické spoleènosti , (1963 ) -.

  • Polish theoretical legal thought in general and Ota Weinberger’s logical-cybernetic path in Prague in particular had a rather attractive call in Hungary. It is by no means mere chance that I published two dozen review articles on Polish books during that period while I dedicated hardly half a dozen reviews to all other Socialist titles. Cf. Varga, Cs.: Jogi elméletek, jogi kultúrák: Kritikák, ismertetések a jogfilozófia és az összehasonlító jog köréből [Theories and cultures of law: Reviews in legal theory and comparative law]. Jogfilozófiák, Budapest, 1994.

    Varga Cs. , '', in Jogi elméletek, jogi kultúrák: Kritikák, ismertetések a jogfilozófia és az összehasonlító jog köréből , (1994 ) -.

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  • Varga, Cs.: The Hart-phenomenon. Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, 91 (2005) 92, note 46.

    Varga Cs. , 'The Hart-phenomenon ' (2005 ) 91 Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie : 92 -.

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  • In fact, Ion Gheorghe Maurer [member of both the National Assembly and the Communist Party Central Committee for three decades, then Head of State and Prime Minister for one and a half decades, simultaneously with his directorship at the Institute for Legal Research of the Romanian Academy of Sciences] outlined—in Maurer, I. G.: Cuvînt înainte [Introductory words]. Studii si cercetári juridice, (1956) 1, 1–47.—the foundations of Sovietised Rumanian legal Marxism with thirty references to, or quotations from, the French scholarship, which was an act unheard-of in this very epoch. In an altered political atmosphere, his successor, Ionascu, Tr.-Dezvoltarea Stiintei juridice Socialiste în Republica Populară Romînă [Development of socialist legal sciences in the People’s Democracy of Romania]. Revista Romănă de Drept, (1964) 8, 34-56-, could also rely on domestic literature alone, without referring to Soviet authors.

    Maurer I. G. , 'Cuvînt înainte ' (1956 ) 1 Studii si cercetári juridice : 1 -47.

  • Cf., primarily, Ionascu, Tr.- Barasch, E. A.: Les constantes du droit: Droit et logique. Revue roumaine des sciences sociales: Série de sciences juridiques, 8 (1964) 2, 129–143. and Nenovski, N.: Priemstvenostta v pravoto [Continuity in law]. Sofia, 1975, and Preemstvennost’ v prave [Continuity in Law]. Moscow, 1977. For a Western reflection, see also Tay, A. E.-S.-Kamenka, E.: Marxism-Leninism and the Heritability of Law. and Münzel, F.: Chinese Thoughts of the Heritability of Law. Review of Socialist Law, 6 (1980), 261–291.

    Barasch E. A. , 'Les constantes du droit: Droit et logique ' (1964 ) 8 Revue roumaine des sciences sociales: Série de sciences juridiques : 129 -143.

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  • It was by no mere chance that the Budapest school of Lukács’ disciples (Ágnes Heller, György Márkus, Ferenc Fehér, and so on), media favourites for international leftist progressives of the age, joined unconditionally in these trends. In legal theory, this was represented by the new dogmatism in Yugoslavia and sporadically cultivated in Czechoslovakia. By contrast, this had no professional echo at all in Hungary despite a few accidental references by Vilmos Peschka, who was motivated by a moral espousal of a trend officially rejected.

  • Opałek, K.: Problemy metodologiczne nauki prawa [Methodological problems of legal sciences]. Warszawa, 1962; Peczenik, A.: Wartość naukowa dogmatyki prawa: Práca z zakresu porównawczej metodologii nauki prawa [The scientific value of legal dogmatics]. Krakow, 1966; Nowak, L.: Próba metodologicznej charakterystyki prawoznawstwa [The methodological characteristic of legal knowledge]. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu: Prace Wydziału Prawa 38, Poznan, 1968.

    Opałek K. , '', in Problemy metodologiczne nauki prawa , (1962 ) -.

  • Grzybowski, St.: Wypowiedz normatywna oraz jej struktúra formalna [Normative expression and its formal structure]. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego: Ropzprawy i Studia XXXIX, Kraków, 1961; Gregorowicz, J.: Definicje w prawie i w nauce prawa [Definitions in law and in the science of law]. Łódzkie Towarzystwo Naukowe: Wydzia. I/52, Łódz, 1962; Perelman, Ch. (ed.): Études de logique juridique. III: Contributions polonaises à la théorie du droit et de l’interprétation juridique. Travaux de Centre National de Recherches de Logique, Bruxelles, 1969; Grahn, W.: Die Rechtsnorm: Eine Studie. Methodologie der marxistisch-leninistischen Rechtswissenschaft 6, Leipzig, 1979.

    Grzybowski St. , '', in Wypowiedz normatywna oraz jej struktúra formalna , (1961 ) -.

  • As a forerunner, see, e.g. Andreev, N. D.-Kerimov, D. A.: O vozmozhnostiyakh kibernetiki pri reshenii pravovykh problem [On the potential use of cybernetics in solving legal problems]. Voprosy filosofii, (1960) 7, 106–110; Kerimov, D. A.: Kibernetika i pravo [Cybernetics and law]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1962) 11, 98–104; by Knapp, V.: O možnosti použití kybernetických metod v právu [On the possible uses of cybernetic methods in law]. Praha, 1963, and De l’application de la cybernétique au domaine du droit. Revue de Droit contemporain [Bruxelles], (1962–63) 2, 13–34; Gavrilov, O. A.: O vozmozhnosti ispolzovaniya metodov kibernetiki v normatvorcheskoi deyatelnosti [On the possibility of providing cybernetic methods in practical law-making]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1965) 10, 119–123; Benjamin, N.: Zur Anwendung mathematischer Methoden in der staatlichen Leitung und Rechtspflege. Staat und Recht, (1965) 6, 899–921; Kudryavtsev, V. N. (ed.): Voprosy kibernetiki i pravo [Issues of cybernetics and law]. Moscow, 1967, and Eliás, J. (ed.): Kybernetika a právo: Buletin o aplikaci kybernetickych metod ve vede o státu a právu a v právni praxi [Cybernetics and law: Bulletin on the application of cybernetic methods on the fields of state and law and also in legal practice]. I-. Praha, 1967. Later works went more in details as e.g. Kisza, A.: Model cyberneticzny powastawania i działania prawa [The cybernetic model of law]. Prace Wrocławskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego A/133, Wroclaw, 1970. and Polevoi, N. S.-Vitruk, N. V. (ed.): Osnovy primeneniya kibernetiki v pravovedenii [Foundations of the application of cybernetics in jurisprudence]. Moscow, 197

    Andreev N. D. ^D. A. , 'O vozmozhnostiyakh kibernetiki pri reshenii pravovykh problem ' (1960 ) 7 Voprosy filosofii : 106 -110.

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  • Ziembiński, Z.: Normy moralne a normy prawne: Zarys problematyki [Moral and legal norms: Outlines]. Uniwersytet im. Adama Miczkiewicza w Poznaniu: Prace Wydziału prawa 6, Poznan, 1963; Studnicki, Fr.: Przepływ wiadomosći o normach prawa [New developments on legal norms]. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego CXIX: Prace Prawnicze 22, Kraków, 1965; Borucka-Arctowa, M.: O społecznym działaniu prawa [On the social effect of law]. Warszawa, 1967.

    Ziembiński Z. , '', in Normy moralne a normy prawne: Zarys problematyki , (1963 ) -.

  • For example Vulcanescu, R.: Etnologie juridica [Legal ethnology]. Buçuresti, 1970; Krstić, D.: Pravni običaji kod Kuća [Legal customs of Kuca]. Srpska Akademiia Nauka i Umetnosti, Balkanoloski Institut 7, Beograd, 1979.

    Vulcanescu R. , '', in Etnologie juridica , (1970 ) -.

  • Zor’kin, V. D.: Pozitivistskaya teoriya prava v Rossii [Positivist legal theory in Russia]. Moscow, 1978; Piatkina, S. A. (ed.): Istoriya russkoi pravovoi mysli: Biografii, dokumenti, publikatsii [The history of Russian legal thought: Biographies, documents, publications]. Moscow, 1998.

    Zor’kin V. D. , '', in Pozitivistskaya teoriya prava v Rossii , (1978 ) -.

  • By Naschitz, A.: Wert und Wertungsfragen im Recht. Revue roumaine des Sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridique, 9 (1965) 1, 3–23, and »Le problème du droit naturel« à la lumière de la philosophie marxiste du droit. Revue roumaine des Sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridiques, 10 (1966) 1, 19–40.

    Naschitz A. , 'Wert und Wertungsfragen im Recht ' (1965 ) 9 Revue roumaine des Sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridique : 3 -23.

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  • Borucka-Arctowa, M.: The Conception of Legal Consciousness as a New Approach to the Problems of Natural Law. In: Łopatka, A. (ed.): Contemporary Conceptions of Law. Warsaw, 1979. 153–170.

    Borucka-Arctowa M. , '', in Contemporary Conceptions of Law , (1979 ) -.

  • For example Knapp, V.: Filozofické problémy socialistického práva [The philosophical problems of socialist law]. Praha, 1967. See also Knapp, V.: Legal Sciences. In: Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences. Paris and The Hague, 1978. part II.

    Knapp V. , '', in Filozofické problémy socialistického práva , (1967 ) -.

  • For example by Klenner, H.: The Marxist Conception of Human Rights. Retfœrd [Copenhagen], (1977) 6, 8–20, and Vom Recht der Natur zur Natur des Rechts. Berlin, 1984.

    Klenner H. , 'The Marxist Conception of Human Rights ' (1977 ) 6 Retfœrd [Copenhagen] : 8 -20.

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  • For example by Wróblewski, J.: State and Law in Marxist Theory of State and Law. Wayne Law Review, 22 (1976) 3, 815–839; Problems of Legality in Marxist Theory. Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, 62 (1976), 497–515, and The Philosophical Problems of Legal Theory in Marxist Interpretation. Archivum Iuridicum Cracoviense, 11 (1978), 41–56.

    Wróblewski J. , 'State and Law in Marxist Theory of State and Law ' (1976 ) 22 Wayne Law Review : 815 -839.

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  • With a military procurator’s past in [East-]Germany but with an ability to communicate in Russian exclusively, cf. e.g. Kerimov, V. A. (ed.): Pravo i kommunizm [Law and communism]. Moscow, 1960.

    '', in Pravo i kommunizm , (1960 ) -.

  • Mollnau, K. A.: Vom Aberglauben der juristischen Weltanschauung. Berlin [Ost], 1974, and Zur Kritik der bürgerlichen Ideologie 53, Frankfurt am Main, 1975.

    Mollnau K. A. , '', in Vom Aberglauben der juristischen Weltanschauung , (1974 ) -.

  • Popov, P. N.: Kritika na sovremenniia burzhoazen praven normativizma [Criticism of contemporary bourgeois legal normativism]. Sofia, 1964.

    Popov P. N. , '', in Kritika na sovremenniia burzhoazen praven normativizma , (1964 ) -.

  • From among the early festschrifts, see Vintu, I.- Naschitz, A. M.- Nestor, I. (ed.): Études juridiques en l’honneur du Professeur Trajan A. Ionesco. Special issue of Revue roumaine des Sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridiques, 12 (1968) 1. For collections at an international level, cf. Archives de Philosophie du Droit 12: Marx et le droit moderne. Paris, 1967, and Reich, N.: Marxistische und sozialistische Rechtstheorie. Studien und Texte zur Theorie und Methodologie des Rechts 12, Frankfurt am Main, 1972, and at a national one, Łopatka, A.-Szklennik, A. (ed.): Law and Future of Society. Warsaw, 1977; Kerimow, D. (ed.): Contemporary Conceptions of Law / Die marxistische Konzeption des Rechts. Probleme der modernen Welt 26, Moskau, 1979.

  • For example Archivum Iuridicum Cracoviense, I— (1968—).

  • By Lukić, R. D.: Théorie de l’Etat et du droit [1951]. Philosophie du Droit 13, Paris, 1974, and La giustizia e l’objettività del diritto. Rivista internazionale di Filosofia del Diritto, XLI (1964) VI, 679–688; as well as Lukić, R. (ed.): Sur la philosophie du droit. Beograd, 1978.

    Lukić R. D. , '', in Théorie de l’Etat et du droit , (1951 ) -.

  • As to Adam Podgórecki, cf. his Załozenia polityki prawa: Metodologia pracy legislacyjnej i kodyfikacyjnej [Legal policy: Methodology of legislation and codification]. Warszawa, 1957, Socjologia prawa [Legal sociology]. Seria Sygnaly, Warszawa, 1962, Prestiż prawa [Prestige of the law]. Warszawa, 1966, and Zarys socjologii prawa [Outlines of legal sociology]. Warszawa, 1971, ending by Law and Society. International Library of Sociology, London-Boston, 1974, compelled to emigrate to Canada in 1977 with his wife, the sociologist Maria Lós.

  • In the Muscovite empire, re-orientation followed slowly and gradually, as started in Czechoslovakia. Cf. e.g. Bystrický, R.: Za marxistickou srovnávací právovědu [For a Marxist comparative jurisprudence]. Právník, (1962) 8, 625 et seq.; Boguszak, J.: K otázce tzv. srovnávací právovědy [To the question of comparative jurisprudence]. Právník, (1962) 9, 803–806; Knapp, V.: Verträge im tschechoslowakischen Recht (Ein Beitrag zur Rechtsvergleichung zwischen Ländern mit verschiedenen Gesellschaftsordnung). Rabels Zeitschrift für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht, 27 (1962) 3, 495–518; Svoboda, M.: Jěstě k marxistické srovnávací právovědě [Once more on a Marxist comparative jurisprudence]. Právník, (1963) 5, 388; Knapp, V.: K otázce socialistické srovnávací právní vědy [To the question of a socialist comparative science of law]. Právník, (1963) 5, 391–402. It was followed by Zivs, S. L.: O metode sravnitel’nogo issledovaniya v nauka o gosudarstve i prave [On the method of comparative research in the sciences of state and law]. Sovietskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1964) 3, 23 et seq.; Kanda, A.: Základni problémy srovnáváni právnich systému ruznach ekonomickych soustav [Foundational problems of comparing legal systems pertaining to differing economic regimes]. Právnické Studie, (1965) 4, 699–720; Chikvadze, V. M.-Zivs, S. L.: Sravnitel’noe pravovedenie v praktike mezhdunarodnaya nautshnaya sotrudnichestva [Comparative jurisprudence in the practice of international scientific cooperation]. Sovietskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, (1966) 2, 12–21; Posch, M.-Petev, V.: Vergleichung in der Rechtslehre. Staat und Recht, (1966) 1, 89 et seq.; by Knapp, V.: Quelques problèmes méthodologiques dans la science du droit comparé. Revue roumaine des sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridiques, (1967)1, 76 et seq. and Některé metodologické problémy srovnávací právní vědy. Právník, (1968) 2, 91 et seq.

    Bystrický R. , '', in Právník , (1962 ) -.

  • Starting with Péteri, Z. (ed.): Studies in Jurisprudence for the Sixth International Congress of Comparative Law. Budapest, 1967, and Péteri, Z. (ed.): Études en droit comparé — Essays in Comparative Law, the Hungarian contributions to the international congresses of comparative law have regularly been published up to the present day. As the first distinctively scholarly position of Socialist comparatism, see Szabó, I.-Péteri, Z. (eds): A Socialist Approach to Comparative Law. Budapest-Leyden, 1977.

    '', in Studies in Jurisprudence for the Sixth International Congress of Comparative Law , (1967 ) -.

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  • Cf. Eörsi, Gy.: Comparative Civil (Private) Law: Law Types, Law Groups, the Roads of Legal Development. [1975] Budapest, 1979.

    Eörsi Gy. , '', in Comparative Civil (Private) Law: Law Types, Law Groups, the Roads of Legal Development , (1975 ) -.

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  • Kowalski, J.: Funkcjonalizm w prawie amerykanskim: Studium z zakresu pojecia prawa [Functionalism in American law]. Warszawa, 1960; Opałek, K.-Wróblewski, J.: Wspołczesna teoria i socjologia prawa w Stanach Zjecnoczonych Ameryki Polnocnej [Theory and sociology of law in the USA]. Warszawa, 1963; Kryštufek, Zd.: Historické základy právního pozitivismu [Historical outlines of legal positivism]. Praha, 1967; Tille, A. A.: Sotsialisticheskoe sravnitelnoe pravovedenie [The socialist comparative jurisprudence]. Moscow, 1975, as well as Tille, A. A.-Shvekov, G. V.: Sravnitel’nii metod v yuridicheskikh distsiplinakh [Comparative method in legal disciplines]. [1973] Moscow, 1978.

  • Tumanov, V. A. (ed.): Protiv sovremennoi pravovoi ideologii imperializma [Against contemporary legal imperialism]. Moscow, 1962, and Tumanov, V. A. (ed.): Protiv sovremennoi burzhuaznoi teorii prava [Against the contemporary bourgeois theory of law]. Moscow, 1969; as well as, by Tumanov, V. A.: Contemporary Anti-marxism and the Theory of Law. Soviet Law and Government, 8 (1969) 1, 3–20, and Contemporary Bourgeois Legal Thought: A Marxist Evaluation of the Basic Concepts. Theories and Critical Studies, Moscow, 1974, as well as Pensée juridique bourgeoise contemporaine: Appréciation marxiste des conceptions fondamentales. Moscow, 1974, and Bürgerliche Rechtsideologie. Berlin, 1975.

    '', in Protiv sovremennoi pravovoi ideologii imperializma , (1962 ) -.

  • For example as a belated recognition, Strogovich, M. S.: Judicial Law: As Subject, System, and Discipline. Soviet Law and Government, 19 (1981) 3, 21–35.

    , Strogovich M. S. , 'Judicial Law: As Subject, System, and Discipline ' (1981 ) 19 Soviet Law and Government : 21 -35.

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  • See, as one of the nonetheless most known products of East Germany, Haney, G.: Der materialistische Rechtsbegriff (Ein Diskussionsbeitrag). In: Festschrift für Erich Buchholz. I. Berlin, 1987. 62–71.

    Haney G. , '', in Festschrift für Erich Buchholz , (1987 ) -.

  • For example Law, Culture, Science and Technology. Prague, 1987, with Cuper, J.: Types of Metascientific Refl ection in Marxist-Leninist Science of State and Law. 102–128.

  • By Ehrlich, St.: Le positivisme juridique, la sociologie du droit et les sciences politiques. Accademia polaccoa di scienze e lettere / Biblioteca di Roma / Conferenze 28, Wrocław, 1965, and Studia z teorii prawa [Studies in legal theory]. Z prac Katedry Teorii Państwa i Prawa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego 4, Warszawa, 1965.

    Ehrlich St. , '', in Le positivisme juridique, la sociologie du droit et les sciences politiques , (1965 ) -.

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  • By Haney, G.: Sozialistisches Recht und Persönlichkeit. Berlin [Ost], 1967, and Sotsialisticheskoe pravo i lichnost’ [Socialist law and personality]. Moscow, 1971.

    Haney G. , '', in Sozialistisches Recht und Persönlichkeit , (1967 ) -.

  • For example Popescu, S.: Conceptii contemporane despre drept [Contemporary conceptions on law]. Bucuresti, 1985.

    Popescu S. , '', in Conceptii contemporane despre drept , (1985 ) -.

  • For example Synthesis Philosophica [Zagreb], III (1988) 1. A special issue on Contemporary Philosophy of Law. 223–331.

  • See the periodical (collection-like and short-lived, on account of the early death of its founding editor-in-chief Jerzy Wróblewski), characterised by an expressedly Western European ideal of style, of Studies in the Theory and Philosophy of Law [Łódz], I–V (1986–1989).

  • For example Radev, Ya.- Tumanov, V. (ed.): Problemy gosudarstva i prava v sovremennoi ideologicheskoi bor’be [Problems relating to the state and law in the contemporary ideological fight]. Sofia-Moscow, 1983.

    '', in Problemy gosudarstva i prava v sovremennoi ideologicheskoi bor’be , (1983 ) -.

  • The richness of the problems covered by their literature during the Soviet period became cognisable only afterwards, insofar as this can be judged at all from the few hundred multiplied specimens of their publications in the Russian language that could, after independence was regained, become available in Hungarian libraries (due to my initiative and thanks to the libraries of the University of Tartu and the Latvian Academy of Sciences in Riga). For, during the Soviet era, neither the world’s richest specialised collection at the Leyden Institute of Socialist Law nor the legendarily richest-in-its-Baltic-profile private library of Professor Dietrich A. Loeber [Kiel] had had reliably full documentation.

  • For example Ziembiński, Z. (ed.): Polish Contributions to the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of Sciences and the Humanities 12, Amsterdam, 1987.

    '', in Polish Contributions to the Theory and Philosophy of Law , (1987 ) -.

  • Until my own compilation [note 5], there was scarcely any monograph or anthology processing Western and so-called Eastern Marxism in one corpus. As against the previous decades’ clearly ideological attitudes in referring to the underlying authoritarian and totalitarian political scheme-mostly as “Communist” or “Soviet” in, e.g. Bodenheimer, E.: The Impasse of Soviet Legal Philosophy. Cornell Law Quarterly, 38 (1952) 2, 51–72.; Kelsen, H.: The Communist Theory of Law. New York-London, 1955; Lapenna: State and Law, and Stoyanovitch: La philosophie du droit en U.R.S.S. [both in note 8]; Pfaff, D.: Die Entwicklung der sowjetischen Rechtslehre. Abhandlungen der Bundesinstitute für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien XIX, Köln, 1968; Cerroni, U.: Il pensiero giuridico Sovietico. Roma, 1969-, the designations were to develop into “Marxist” and “Socialist” or, rarely, “Marxist-Leninist”, as in, e.g. Reich, N. (ed.): Marxistische und sozialistische Rechtstheorie. Studien und Texte zur Theorie und Methodologie des Rechts 12, Frankfurt am Main, 1972; Kühne, D.: Der marxistisch-sozialistische Rechtsbegriff: Eine kritische Stellungnahme. Münsterische Beiträge zur Rechtswissenschaft 11, Berlin-München, 1985; Mazurek, P.: Marxistische und sozialistische Rechtstheorie. In: Kaufmann, A.-Hassemer, W. (ed.): Einführung in die Rechtsphilosophie und Rechtstheorie der Gegenwart. 4th ed. Uni-Taschenbücher 593, Heidelberg, 1985. 327-343; Troller, A.: Das Rechtsdenken aus bürgerlicher und marxistisch-leninistischer Perspektive. Zürich, 1986. and Petev, V.: Kritik der marxistisch-sozialistische Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie. Münsterische Beiträge zur Rechtswissenschaft 37, Berlin, 1989.

    Bodenheimer E. , 'The Impasse of Soviet Legal Philosophy ' (1952 ) 38 Cornell Law Quarterly : 51 -72.

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  • Just as recalling how in the history of commerce in books, the printing of pamphlets as part of the market of pulp literature increased the spread of French Enlightenment ideas and disseminated new insights, it is useful to remember that academic publishing during the Tsarist era was limited to a few hundred copies; the basic classics of Western thought were neither translated nor made available in Soviet times; and even the elementary foundations of Western philosophy were exclusively taught in specific faculties. As a result, there emerged an acutely differing civilisation in the Soviet Union, distinct from the Western one, both in terms of the underlying mentality and of the intellectual framework. The only sources for comprehension of the Western world were afforded by quite sporadic and disdainful references in the usual textbooks on historical materialism. Even in Hungary, very few of those privileged had the possibility to arrive, on the field of the history of politico-legal ideas, from the rudimentary rejection-by, e.g. Antalffy, Gy.- Papp, I.- Popovics, B.: Lectures on the History of Political and Legal Thinking. Acta Universitatis Szegediensis: Acta juridica et politica, Szeged, 20 (1973) 6-to, by Seidler, G. L.: Myśl polityczna starozytności [The political thought of the Antiquity]. Kraków, 1961, Myśl polityczna średniowiecza [The political thought of the Middle Ages]. Kraków, 1961, and Doktryny prawne imperializmu [The legal doctrines of imperialism]. Kraków, 1957, and Lublin, 1979, attempting at a genuine (though Marxising) description, sophisticated enough to be withdrawn from circulation and reprinting programs rather soon.

    Popovics B. , '', in Acta Universitatis Szegediensis: Acta juridica et politica , (1973 ) -.

  • Vladik Sumbatovic Nersesiants of the Institute of State and Law of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was literally the only one in Soviet Russia for decades to cultivate jurisprudence based on the history of ideas, whether Western or Eastern. This took place under conditions in which Roman law was practically unknown and the pre-Bolshevik centuries of the history of the Russian state and law were referred to only occasionally, in philological studies carried out on the history of institutions or, let’s say, of typography. Cf., e.g. Nersesiantz, V. S.: Istoriko-pravovie issledovanixa: Problemi i perspektivi [Legal-historical inquiry: Problems and perspectives]. Moscow, 1982, Pravo i zakon: Iz istorii pravovykh uchenii [Right and law: From the history of legal teachings]. Moscow, 1983, and Political Thought of Ancient Greece. Moscow, 1986.

  • For example Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 28 (1979). Special issue on Wert und Recht.; Ceterchi, I.-Popescu, S.: Droit et valeur. Revue roumaine des Sciences sociales: Série de Sciences juridiques, 28 (1984) 1. 13–20.; Nenovski, N. K.: Pravo i tsennost’i [Law and values]. Sofia, 1983. and Moscow, 1987.

  • For example Knapp, V.: Teorie práva [Theory of law]. Právnické učebnice, Praha, 1995.

    Knapp V. , '', in Teorie práva , (1995 ) -.

  • Above all, Nersesiants, V. S.: Nash put’ k pravu: ot sotsializma k tsivilizmu [Our road to law: From socialism to civilism]. Moscow, 1992.

    Nersesiants V. S. , '', in Nash put’ k pravu: ot sotsializma k tsivilizmu , (1992 ) -.

  • For example Mollnau, K. A.: Sozialistischer Rechtsstaat (Versuch einer Charakterisierung). Neue Justiz, 43 (1989) 10, 393–397; Omel’tshenko, O. A.: Ideya pravovogo gosudarstva: Istoki, perspektivy, tupiki [The idea of the legal state: Sources, perspectives, topics]. Moscow, 1994; Nersesiants, V. S. (ed.): Preemstvennost’ i novizma v gosudarstvenno-pravovom razvitii Rossii [Standing and novel elements in the development of state and law in Russia]. Novoe v iuridicheskoi nauke i praktike, Moscow, 1996.

    Mollnau K. A. , 'Sozialistischer Rechtsstaat (Versuch einer Charakterisierung) ' (1989 ) 43 Neue Justiz : 393 -397.

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  • For example in Russia proper, Kuznetsov, E. A.: Filosofiya prava v Rossii [Legal philosophy in Russia]. Moscow, 1989; Al’bov, A. P. et al. (ed.): Russkaya filosofiya prava: Filosofiya very i nravstvennosti: Antologiya [Russian philosophy of law: An anthology of the philosophy of justice and morality]. Sankt-Peterburg, 1997; as well as Azarkin, N. M.: Istoriya yuridicheskoi mysli Rossii: Kurs lektsii [Lectures on the history of legal thought in Russia]. Moscow, 1999, and, as monographised, Il’in, I. A.: Filosofiya prava: Nravstvennaya filosofiya [Philosophy of law: Moral philosophy]. Moscow, 1993; in Estonia, Gryazin, I. N. (ed.): Istoricheskoe v teorii prava [Historicity in legal theory]. Studia Iuridica (Historia et theoria) 3, Tartu, 1989, and Gryazin, I. N.-Järvelaid, P. M. (ed.): Vneteoreticheskie formy otrazheniya prava [Theoretical forms of legal mirroring]. Studia Iuridica (Historia et theoria) 5, Tartu, 1990, with a commemorative elaboration on Ilmar Tammelo (128 et seq.) and Vasily Ivanovitch Sinaisky (136 et seq.), as well as Järvelaid, P. (ed.): Ilmar Tammelo: Varased tööd (1939–1943). Eesti ōigusteaduse allikad 1, Hamburg, 1993; in Bulgaria, reimpression of Ganev, V.: Kurs po obshctsha teoriia na pravoto: Uvod metodologiia na pravoto [Course-book on general theory of law: Methodological introduction to law]. 5th ed. Sofia, 1995; and, in Romania, Berceanu, B. B.: Universul juristului Mircea Djuvara [Mircea Djuvara’s legal universe]. Bucuresti, 199

    , Kuznetsov E. A. , '', in Filosofiya prava v Rossii , (1989 ) -.

  • For example with a dramatic cesura drawn by the transition, Klenner, H.: Was bleibt von der marxistischen Rechtsphilosophie? In: 15th World Congress on Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy: Plenary Lectures. Göttingen, 1991. 113–131. Reprint: Neue Justiz, 45 (1991) 442–445; Lotze, L.: Wege und Irrwege der marxistischen Rechtstheorie. Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, 78 (1992), 396–406, and Varga, Cs.: Introduction. In: Varga, Cs. (ed.): Marxian Legal Theory. [note 5.] xiii–xviii. Cf. also, by Klenner, H. Recht und Unrecht. Bibliothek dialektischer Grundbegriffe 12, Bielefeld, 2004. and Historisierende Rechtsphilosophie: Essays. Haufe-Schriftenreihe zur rechtswissenschaftlichen Grundlagenforschung 21, Freiburg in Breslau, 2009. It is to be noted that from the German Democratic Republic, only Hermann Klenner (Berlin) and Gerhard Haney (Jena) had the intellectual integrity of continuing their scholarly undertakeable work. The afterlife of the rest is mostly unknown.

  • Cf., by Varga, Cs.: Transition to Rule of Law: On the Democratic Transformation in Hungary. Philosophiae Iuris, Budapest, 1995. http://drcsabavarga.wordpress.com/2010/10/24/transition-to-rule-of-law-on-the-democratic-transformation-in-hungary-1995/ and Transition? To Rule of Law? Constitutionalism and Transitional Justice Challenged in Central and Eastern Europe. PoLíSz Series 7, Pomáz, 2008. http://drcsabavarga.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/varga-transition-to-rule-of-law-constitutionalism-and-transitional-justice-challenged-in-central-and-eastern-europe-2008/

    Varga Cs. , '', in Transition to Rule of Law: On the Democratic Transformation in Hungary , (1995 ) -.

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  • From the German Democratic Republic, only Hermann Klenner (Berlin) and Gerhard Haney (Jena) had the intellectual integrity of continuing their scholarly undertakeable work. The afterlife of the rest is mostly unknown.

  • For example by Tille, A. A.: Pravo absurda: Sotsialisticheskoe feodal’noe pravo [The law of the absurd: The socialist feudal law]. Moscow, 1992 and Sovetskii sotsialistitsheskii feodalizm: 1917–1990 [Soviet socialist feudalism]. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2005.

  • During the last of the Austrian-Hungarian IVR Symposia we organised with Ota Weinberger at Graz/Leibnitz, I discussed at length with Hubert Rottleutner of the Free University of Berlin the whys and hows of erecting an institute specialised in carrying out such parallel investigations. The double standard in rejecting red/brown dictatorships has blocked, however, any progress in this direction.