View More View Less
  • 1 Semmelweis University Institute of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of General Medicine H-1445 Budapest
  • | 2 Semmelwies University Institute of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of General Medicine H-1445 Budapest
  • | 3 Semmelweis University Institute of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of General Medicine H-1445 Budapest
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $784.00

Molecular mechanisms of the action of b-lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics, as well as genetic background and phenotipical features of the resistance of staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci to these antibiotics are reviewed. Furthermore, susceptibility patterns concerning b-lactam and glycopeptide drugs of staphylococcal, streptococcal, as well as enterococcal strains isolated from clinical specimens at the Semmelweis University of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary between January 1997 and December 2000 are also presented.

  • Wilson, A. P. R. Emerging antimicrobial resistance in the surgical compromised host. J Chemother; 11(6),518 (1999)

    'Emerging antimicrobial resistance in the surgical compromised host ' () 11 J Chemother : 518.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tomasz, A., Drugeon, H. B., deLancestre, H. M., .Jabes, D., McDougal, L., Bille, J. New mechanism for methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates that lack the PBP2a gene and contain normal PBPs with modified penicillin-binding capacity. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 33,1874 (1989).

    'New mechanism for methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates that lack the PBP2a gene and contain normal PBPs with modified penicillin-binding capacity ' () 33 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1874.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hackbarth, C. J., Kocagöz, T., Kocagöz, S., Chambers, H. F. Point mutation in Staphylococcus aureus PBP2a gene affect penicillin-binding kinetics and are associated with resistance. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 39,103 (1995).

    'Point mutation in Staphylococcus aureus PBP2a gene affect penicillin-binding kinetics and are associated with resistance ' () 39 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 103.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Domanski, T. L., Bayles, K. W. Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus genes encoding penicillin-binding protein 4 and an ABC-type transporter. Gene; 167,111 (1995).

    'Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus genes encoding penicillin-binding protein 4 and an ABC-type transporter ' () 167 Gene : 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wu, S., DeLencastre, H., Tomasz, A. Sigma-B, a putative operon encoding alternate sigma factor of Staphylococcus aureus RNA polymerase molecular cloning and DNA sequencing. J Bacteriol; 178,6036 (1996).

    'Sigma-B, a putative operon encoding alternate sigma factor of Staphylococcus aureus RNA polymerase molecular cloning and DNA sequencing ' () 178 J Bacteriol : 6036.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gerberding, J. L., Mück, C., Lin, H. H., Chambers, H. F. Comparison of conventional susceptibility tests with direct detection of PBP2a in borderline oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 35,2574 (1991).

    'Comparison of conventional susceptibility tests with direct detection of PBP2a in borderline oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus ' () 35 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2574.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Henze, U. U., Berger-Bachi, B. Penicillin binding protein-4 overproduction increases β-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 40,2121 (1996).

    'Penicillin binding protein-4 overproduction increases β-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ' () 40 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2121.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McDougal, L. K., Thornsberry, C. The role of β-lactamase in staphylococcal resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillin and cephalosporin. J Clin Microbiol; 23,832 (1986).

    'The role of β-lactamase in staphylococcal resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillin and cephalosporin ' () 23 J Clin Microbiol : 832.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Rédai, I. The effect of methicillin in combination with trypsin and lysozyme on the growth of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci hung; 19,133 (1972).

    'The effect of methicillin in combination with trypsin and lysozyme on the growth of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains ' () 19 Acta Microbiol Acad Sci hung : 133.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Montanari, M. P., Massida, O., Mingoia, M., Varaldo, P. E. Borderline susceptibility to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus new mechanism of resistance? Microb Drug Resist; 2,257 (1996).

    'Borderline susceptibility to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus new mechanism of resistance? ' () 2 Microb Drug Resist : 257.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garret, D. O., Jochimsen, E., Murfitt, K. The impending apocalypse, the emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol; 18, Suppl, P32. Abstract (1997).

    'The impending apocalypse, the emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus spp ' () 18 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol : P32. Abstract.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schwalbe, R. S., Stapleton, J. T., Gilligan, P. H. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci. N Eng J Med; 316, 927 (1987).

    'Emergence of vancomycin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci ' () 316 N Eng J Med : 927.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bruns, O., Bruns, W., Pulverer, G. Regulation of β-lactamase synthesis as a novel site of action for suppression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Zbl Bakt; 285,413 (1997).

    'Regulation of β-lactamase synthesis as a novel site of action for suppression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ' () 285 Zbl Bakt : 413.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Low, D. E. Clinical microbiology Issues in identification and susceptibility testing. In: Crossley, K. B., Archer, L. G. (eds) The staphylococci in human disease. Churchill Livingstone, New York pp. 233-252 (1997).

    The staphylococci in human disease , () 233 -252.

  • Mlynarczyk, A., Mlynarczyk, G., Jeljaszewitz, J. Genome in Staphylococcus aureus a review. Zbl Bakt; 287, 277 (1999).

    'Genome in Staphylococcus aureus a review ' () 287 Zbl Bakt : 277.

  • Tomasz, A. Auxiliary genes assisting in the expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. In: Novick, R. P., Skurray, R. A. (eds) Molecular biology of the staphylococci. VHC Publishers, Inc., New York pp. 565-583 (1990).

    Molecular biology of the staphylococci , () 565 -583.

  • Rozgonyi, F. Genotypic stability of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus at supraoptimal temperature. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 10,377 (1976).

    'Genotypic stability of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus at supraoptimal temperature ' () 10 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 377.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Rédai, I. The effect of methicillin in combination with trypsin and lysozmyme on the growth of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci hung; 19,133 (1972).

    'The effect of methicillin in combination with trypsin and lysozmyme on the growth of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains ' () 19 Acta Microbiol Acad Sci hung : 133.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Kiss, J., Lévai, G., Biacs, P., Váczi, L. Phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. In PLASMIDS - Medical and Theoretical Aspects (Eds. Mitsuhashi, S, Rosival, L., Krcméry, V.). - Proc. 3rd Internatl Symp Antibiotic Resistance, Smolenice, 1976, AVICENUM, Prague, and Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Hiedelberg-New York, pp. 353-360 (1977).

  • Rozgonyi, F., Laczkó, J., Váczi, L. Phenotypic expression of resistance to penicillinase-stable β-lactams in Staphylococcus aureus growth rate, cross wall morphogenesis, and cell division cycle. FEMS Microbiol Lett; 14,237 (1982).

    'Phenotypic expression of resistance to penicillinase-stable β-lactams in Staphylococcus aureus growth rate, cross wall morphogenesis, and cell division cycle ' () 14 FEMS Microbiol Lett : 237.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Kovács, L., Váczi, L. Genotypic stability of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus after persistance in mice. Transf Antibiot Resist Avicenum; pp. 269-273 (1984).

  • Bruns, W., Keppeler, H. Mechanism of intrinsic penicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Binding of penicillin G to the cytoplasmic membrane of resistant staphylococci Arzneim Forsch; 30,1469 (1980).

    'Mechanism of intrinsic penicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Binding of penicillin G to the cytoplasmic membrane of resistant staphylococci ' () 30 Arzneim Forsch : 1469.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weller, T. M. The distribution of mecA mecR1 and mecI and sequence analysis of mecI and the mec promoter region in staphylococci expression resistance to methicillin. J Antimicrob Chemoter; 43,15 (1999).

    'The distribution of mecA mecR1 and mecI and sequence analysis of mecI and the mec promoter region in staphylococci expression resistance to methicillin ' () 43 J Antimicrob Chemoter : 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dominiquez, M. A., Linares, J., Martin, R. Molecular mechanism of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiologia; 13,301 (1997).

    'Molecular mechanism of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ' () 13 Microbiologia : 301.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ehlert, K. Methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus - molecular basis, novel targets and antibiotic therapy. Curr Pharm Des; 5,44 (1999).

    'Methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus - molecular basis, novel targets and antibiotic therapy ' () 5 Curr Pharm Des : 44.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests sixth edition; Approved standard M7-A6 National Committee for Clinical Laboratory standards, Villanova, PA (1997).

  • National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Fifth information supplement. NCCLS document M100-S6. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory standards, Villanova, PA (1993).

  • Veach, L. A., Pfaller, M. A., Barrett, M., Koontz, F. P., Wenzel, R. P. Vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus haemolyticus causing colonization and bloodstream infection. J Clin Microbiol; 28,2064 (1990).

    'Vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus haemolyticus causing colonization and bloodstream infection ' () 28 J Clin Microbiol : 2064.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sanyal, D., Johnson, A. P., George, R. C., Cookson, B. D., Williams, A. J. Peritonitis due to vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Lancet; 337(2068),54 (1991).

    'Peritonitis due to vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis ' () 337 Lancet : 54.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aubert, G., Passot, S., Lucht, F., Dorche, G. Selection of vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus during teicoplanin treatment of S. epidermidis infection. J Antimicrob Chemother; 25,491 (1990).

    'Selection of vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus during teicoplanin treatment of S. epidermidis infection ' () 25 J Antimicrob Chemother : 491.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Knausz, M., Ghidán, Á., Rozgonyi, F. Nosocomial catheter colonization by teicoplanin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in immunocompromised patients. Clin Microb Infect; 7 Suppl 1,81 (2001).

    'Nosocomial catheter colonization by teicoplanin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in immunocompromised patients ' () 7 Clin Microb Infect : 81.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hiramatsu, K., Hanaki, H., Ino, T., Yabuta, K., Oguri, T., Tenover, F. C. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strain with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. J Antimicrob Chemother; 40,135 (1997).

    'Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strain with reduced vancomycin susceptibility ' () 40 J Antimicrob Chemother : 135.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin - United States, 1997. JAMA; 278(14), 1145-6 (1997) (From the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1997; 46, 813

    'Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin - United States, 1997 ' () 278 JAMA : 1145-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lessing, M. P. A., Raftery, M. J. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [Correspondence]. The Lancet; 351(9102),601 (1998).

    'Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [Correspondence] ' () 351 The Lancet : 601.

  • Predari, S. C., Ligozzi, M., Fontana, R. Genotypic identification of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 35,2568 (1991).

    'Genotypic identification of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction ' () 35 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2568.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sieradzki, K., Roberts, R. B., Haber, S. W., Tomasz, A. Brief report The development of vancomycin resistance in a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. N Eng J Med; 340,517 (1999).

    'Brief report The development of vancomycin resistance in a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection ' () 340 N Eng J Med : 517.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Waldvogel, F. A. New resistance in Staphylococcus aureus [Editorials]. N Eng J Med; 340,556 (1999).

    'New resistance in Staphylococcus aureus [Editorials] ' () 340 N Eng J Med : 556.

  • Dutka-Malen, S., Evers, S., Courvalin, P. Detection of glycopeptide resistance genotypes and identification to the species level of clinically relevant enterococci by PCR. J Clin Microbiol; 33,24 (1995).

    'Detection of glycopeptide resistance genotypes and identification to the species level of clinically relevant enterococci by PCR ' () 33 J Clin Microbiol : 24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Noble, W. C., Virani, Z., Cree, R. G. Co-transfer of vancomycin and other resistance genes from Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 12201 to Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol Lett; 93,1958 (1992).

    'Co-transfer of vancomycin and other resistance genes from Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 12201 to Staphylococcus aureus ' () 93 FEMS Microbiol Lett : 1958.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tenover, F. C., Lancaster, M. V., Hill, B. C. Characterization of staphylococci with reduced susceptibilities to vancomycin and other glycopeptides. J Clin Microbiol; 36,1020 (1998).

    'Characterization of staphylococci with reduced susceptibilities to vancomycin and other glycopeptides ' () 36 J Clin Microbiol : 1020.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, T. L., Pearson, M. L., Wilcox, K. R. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. N Engl J Med; 340,493 (1999).

    'Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ' () 340 N Engl J Med : 493.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Siedradzki, K., Tomasz, A. Inhibition of cell wall turnover and autolysis by vancomycin in a highly vancomycin resistant mutant of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol; 179,2557 (1997).

    'Inhibition of cell wall turnover and autolysis by vancomycin in a highly vancomycin resistant mutant of Staphylococcus aureus ' () 179 J Bacteriol : 2557.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Daum, R. S., Gupta, S., Sabbagh, R. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin and teicoplanin isolation and purification of a constitutively produced protein associated with decreased susceptibility. J Infect Dis; 166,1066 (1992).

    'Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin and teicoplanin isolation and purification of a constitutively produced protein associated with decreased susceptibility ' () 166 J Infect Dis : 1066.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shlaes, D. M., Shlaes, J. H., Vincent, S. Teicoplanin resistant Staphylococcus aureus expresses a novel membrane protein and increases expression of penicillin-binding protein-2 complex. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 37,2432 (1997).

    'Teicoplanin resistant Staphylococcus aureus expresses a novel membrane protein and increases expression of penicillin-binding protein-2 complex ' () 37 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2432.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moreira, B. S., deJonge, B. L., Daum, R. S. Increased production of penicillin-binding protein 2, increased detection of other penicillin-binding proteins, and decreased coagulase activity associated with glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 41,1788 (1998).

    41 1788

  • Kloos, W. E., Bannerman, T. L. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus. In: Murray, P. R., Baron, E. J., Pfaller, M. A., Tenover, F. C. and Yolken, R. H. (eds) Manual of clinical microbiology. 6th ed. Washington, D. C. American Society for Microbiology, pp. 282-298 (1995).

    Manual of clinical microbiology , () 282 -298.

  • Edmond, M. B., Wenzel, R. P., Pasculle, A. W. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus perspectives on measures needed for control. Ann Intern Med; 124, 329 (1996).

    'Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus perspectives on measures needed for control ' () 124 Ann Intern Med : 329.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murray, B. E., Mederski-Samaroj, B. Transferable beta-lactamase. A new mechanism for in vitro penicillin resistance in Streptococcus faecalis. J Clin Inv; 72,1168 (1983).

    'Transferable beta-lactamase. A new mechanism for in vitro penicillin resistance in Streptococcus faecalis ' () 72 J Clin Inv : 1168.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murray, B. E. Beta-lactamase-producing enterococci. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 36, 2355 (1992).

    'Beta-lactamase-producing enterococci ' () 36 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2355.

  • Bush, L. M., Calmon, J., Cherney, C. L., Wendeler, M., Pitsakis, P., Pouppard, J. High-level penicillin resistance among isolates of enterococci. Ann Intern Med; 110,515 (1989).

    'High-level penicillin resistance among isolates of enterococci ' () 110 Ann Intern Med : 515.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grayson, L., Eliopoulos, G. M., Wennerstern, C. Increasing resistance to β-lactam antibiotics among clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium a 22-year review at one institution. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 35,2180 (1991).

    'Increasing resistance to β-lactam antibiotics among clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium a 22-year review at one institution ' () 35 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2180.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murray, B. E. The life and times of the Enterococcus. Clin Microbiol Rev; 3,46 (1990).

    'The life and times of the Enterococcus ' () 3 Clin Microbiol Rev : 46.

  • Rice, L. B., Marshall, S. H. Evidence of incorporation of the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene of Enterococcus faecalis CH19 into a transposon derived from staphylococci. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 36,1843 (1992).

    'Evidence of incorporation of the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene of Enterococcus faecalis CH19 into a transposon derived from staphylococci ' () 36 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1843.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Coundron, P. E., Markowitz, S. M., Wong, E. S. Isolation of beta-lactamase-producing, aminoglycoside-resistant strain of Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 32,1125 (1992).

    'Isolation of beta-lactamase-producing, aminoglycoside-resistant strain of Enterococcus faecium ' () 32 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1125.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Patterson, J. E., Masecar, B. L., Zervos, M. J. Characterization and comparison of two penicillinase-producing strains of Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 32,122 (1988).

    'Characterization and comparison of two penicillinase-producing strains of Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis ' () 32 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 122.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Torres, C., Tenorio, C., Lantero, M., Gastanares, M. J., Baquero, F. High-level penicillin resistance and penicillin-gentamicin synergy in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 37,2427 (1993).

    () 37 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2427.

  • Bryce, E. A., Zemcov, S. J., Clarke, A. M. Species identification and antibiotic resistance patterns of the enterococci. Eur J Clin Microbiol Inf Dis; 10,745 (1991).

    'Species identification and antibiotic resistance patterns of the enterococci ' () 10 Eur J Clin Microbiol Inf Dis : 745.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marshall, S. A., Sutton, L. D., Jones, R. N. Evaluation of S1 chromogenic cephalosporin beta-lactamase disk assay tested against gram-positive anaerobes, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Prevotella spp. Enterococcus spp. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis; 22,353 (1995).

    'Evaluation of S1 chromogenic cephalosporin beta-lactamase disk assay tested against gram-positive anaerobes, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Prevotella spp. Enterococcus spp ' () 22 Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis : 353.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sanchez, M. L., Barrett, M. S., Jones, R. N. The E-test applied to susceptibility tests of gonococci, multiple-resistant enterococci, and Enterobacteriaceae producing potent beta-lactamases. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis; 15,459 (1992).

    'The E-test applied to susceptibility tests of gonococci, multiple-resistant enterococci, and Enterobacteriaceae producing potent beta-lactamases ' () 15 Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis : 459.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schulz, J. E., Sahm, D. F. Reliability of E-test for detection of ampicillin, vancomycin, and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus spp. J Clin Microbiol; 31,3336 (1993).

    'Reliability of E-test for detection of ampicillin, vancomycin, and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus spp ' () 31 J Clin Microbiol : 3336.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Iwen, P. C., Kelly, D. M., Linder, J., Hinrichs, S. H. Revised approach for identification and detection of ampicillin and vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species by using MicroScan panels. J Clin Microbiol; 34,1779 (1996).

    'Revised approach for identification and detection of ampicillin and vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species by using MicroScan panels ' () 34 J Clin Microbiol : 1779.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wakanakunakorn, W. Enterococci from blood cultures during 1980-1989 susceptibilities to ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin. J Antimicrob Chemother; 26,602 (1990).

    'Enterococci from blood cultures during 1980-1989 susceptibilities to ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin ' () 26 J Antimicrob Chemother : 602.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hodel-Christian, S. L., Murray, B. E. Characterization of the gentamicin-resistance transposon Tn5218 from Enterococcus faecalis and comparison to staphylococcal transposons Tn4001 and Tn4301. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 35,21 (1991).

    'Characterization of the gentamicin-resistance transposon Tn5218 from Enterococcus faecalis and comparison to staphylococcal transposons Tn4001 and Tn4301 ' () 35 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 21.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Leclercq, R., Derlot, E., Duval, J. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium. N Engl J Med; 319,157 (1988).

    'Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium ' () 319 N Engl J Med : 157.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shlaes, D. M., AL-Obeid, S., Shlaes, J. H. Inducible, transferable resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus faecium D 399. J Antimicrob Chemother; 23,503 (1989).

    'Inducible, transferable resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus faecium D 399 ' () 23 J Antimicrob Chemother : 503.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Handwerger, S., Periman, D. C., Altarac, D., McAuliffe, V. Concomittant high-level vancomycin and penicillin resistance in clinical isolates of enterococci. Clin Infect Dis; 14,655 (1992).

    'Concomittant high-level vancomycin and penicillin resistance in clinical isolates of enterococci ' () 14 Clin Infect Dis : 655.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Snell, J. J. S., Brown, D. F. J., Perry, S. F., George, R. C. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enterococci results of a survey conducted by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Microbiology. J Antimicrob Chemother; 32, (1993).

    'Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enterococci results of a survey conducted by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Microbiology ' () 32 J Antimicrob Chemother .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chow, J. W., Kuritza, A., Schlaes, D. M. Clonal spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium between patients in three hospitals in two states. J Clin Microbiol; 31,1609 (1993).

    'Clonal spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium between patients in three hospitals in two states ' () 31 J Clin Microbiol : 1609.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frieden, T. R., Munsitt, S., Low, D. E. Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in New York City. Lancet; 342,76 (1993).

    'Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in New York City ' () 342 Lancet : 76.

  • Klare, I., Witte, W., Reinhardt, A. Ausbrüche von Infektionen mit vanA-positiven, high-level glykopeptidresistenten Enterococcus faecium in Deutschland. Poster-Abstract Nr. 154, 48. Bonn, DGHM-Tagung (1996).

  • Devrise, L. A., Pot, B., Collins, M. D. Phenotypic identification of the genus Enterococcus and differentiation of phylogenetically distinct enterococcal species and species groups. J Appl Bacteriol; 75,399 (1993).

    'Phenotypic identification of the genus Enterococcus and differentiation of phylogenetically distinct enterococcal species and species groups ' () 75 J Appl Bacteriol : 399.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Woodford, N., Johnson, A., Morrison, D. Current perspectives on glycopeptide resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev; 8,585 (1995).

    'Current perspectives on glycopeptide resistance ' () 8 Clin Microbiol Rev : 585.

  • Reinert, R. R., Conrads, G., Schlaeger, J. J., Werner, G., Witte, W., Lütticken, R., Klare, I. Survey of antibiotic resistance among eterococci in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. J Clin Microbiol; 37,1638 (1999).

    'Survey of antibiotic resistance among eterococci in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany ' () 37 J Clin Microbiol : 1638.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arthur, M., Courvalin, P. Genetics and mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 37,1563 (1993).

    'Genetics and mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci ' () 37 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1563.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Perichon, B., Reynolds, P., Courvalin, P. VanD-type glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4339. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 41,2016 (1997).

    'VanD-type glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4339 ' () 41 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fines, M. B., Perichon, P., Reynolds, D. F., Sahm, P., Courvalin VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 43,2161 (1999).

    'Courvalin VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405 ' () 43 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2161.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Leclercq, R., Dutka-Malen, S., Duval, J., Courvalin, P. Vancomycin resistant gene vanC is specific to Enterococcus gallinarum. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 36,2005 (1992).

    'Vancomycin resistant gene vanC is specific to Enterococcus gallinarum ' () 36 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Livornese, L. L. Jr, Dias, S., Samuel, C. Hospital-acquired infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium transmitted by electronic thermometers. Ann Intern Med; 117,112 (1992).

    'Hospital-acquired infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium transmitted by electronic thermometers ' () 117 Ann Intern Med : 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bingen, E. H., Denamur, E., Lambert-Zechovsky, N. Evidence for the genetic unrelatedness of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains in a pediatric hospital. J Clin Microbiol; 29,1888 (1991).

    'Evidence for the genetic unrelatedness of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains in a pediatric hospital ' () 29 J Clin Microbiol : 1888.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. Morbid Mortal Wkl Rep; 44(No. RR12),1 (1995).

  • Navarro, F., Courvalin, P. Analysis of genes encoding D-alanineD-alanine ligase-related enzymes in Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus flavescens. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 38,1788 (1993).

    'Analysis of genes encoding D-alanineD-alanine ligase-related enzymes in Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus flavescens ' () 38 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1788.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dutka-Malen, S., Leclercq, R., Coutant, V. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of glycopeptide resistance determinants in Gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 34,1875 (1990).

    'Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of glycopeptide resistance determinants in Gram-positive bacteria ' () 34 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1875.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arthur, M., Reynolds, P. E., Courvalin, P. Glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Trends Microbiol; 4,401 (1996).

    'Glycopeptide resistance in enterococci ' () 4 Trends Microbiol : 401.

  • Arthur, M., Molinas, C., Courvalin, P. The VanS-VanR two component regulatory system controls synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. J Bacteriol; 174,2582 (1992).

    'The VanS-VanR two component regulatory system controls synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147 ' () 174 J Bacteriol : 2582.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arthur, M., Molinas, C., Depardieu, F., Courvalin, P. Characterization of Tn1546, a Tn3-related transposon conferring glycopeptide resistance by synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. J Bacteriol; 175,117 (1993).

    'Characterization of Tn1546, a Tn3-related transposon conferring glycopeptide resistance by synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147 ' () 175 J Bacteriol : 117.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Evers, S., Courvalin, P. Regulation of VanB-type vancomycin resistance gene expression by VanSB-VanRB two component regulatory system in E. faecalis V583. J Bacteriol; 178,1302 (1996).

    'Regulation of VanB-type vancomycin resistance gene expression by VanSB-VanRB two component regulatory system in E. faecalis V583 ' () 178 J Bacteriol : 1302.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bugg, T. D. H., Dutka-Malen, S., Arthur, M. Identification of vancomycin resistance protein VanA as a D-alanine-D-alanine ligase of altered substrate specificity. Biochemistry; 30,2017 (1991).

    'Identification of vancomycin resistance protein VanA as a D-alanine-D-alanine ligase of altered substrate specificity ' () 30 Biochemistry : 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dutka-Malen, S., Molinas, C., Arhur, M. The VanA glycopeptide resistance protein is related to D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase cell wall biosynthesis enzymes. Mol Gen Genet; 224,364 (1990).

    'The VanA glycopeptide resistance protein is related to D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase cell wall biosynthesis enzymes ' () 224 Mol Gen Genet : 364.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tenover, F. C., Tokars, J., Swenson, J., Paul, S., Spitalny, K., Jarvis, W. Ability of clinical laboratories to detect antimicrobial agent-resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol; 31,1695 (1993).

    'Ability of clinical laboratories to detect antimicrobial agent-resistant enterococci ' () 31 J Clin Microbiol : 1695.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tomasz, A. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria a report on the Rockefeller University workshop. N Engl J Med; 330,1247 (1994).

    'Multiple-antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria a report on the Rockefeller University workshop ' () 330 N Engl J Med : 1247.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uttley, A. H. C., George, R. C., Naidoo, J. High-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci causing hospital infection. Epidemiol Infect; 103,173 (1989).

    'High-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci causing hospital infection ' () 103 Epidemiol Infect : 173.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Courvalin, P. Genotypic approach to the study of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 35,1019 (1991).

    'Genotypic approach to the study of bacterial resistance to antibiotics ' () 35 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1019.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Eyers, M., Chapelle, G., Van Camp, H., Goossens, D., De Wachter, R. Discrimination among thermophilic Campylobacter species by polimerase chain reaction amplification of 23S gene fragments. J Clin Microbiol; 27,731 (1993).

    'Discrimination among thermophilic Campylobacter species by polimerase chain reaction amplification of 23S gene fragments ' () 27 J Clin Microbiol : 731.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frankel, G., Giron, J. A., Valmossoi, J., Schoolnik. G. K. Multi-gene amplification, simultaneous detection of three virulence genes in diarrhoeal stool. Mol Microbiol; 31729 (1989).

  • Oyofo, B., Thornton, S. A., Burr, D. H., Trust, T. J., Pavlovskis, O. R., Guerry, P. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol; 30,2613 (1992).

    'Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction ' () 30 J Clin Microbiol : 2613.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weber, D. J., Raasch, R., Rutala, W. A. Nosocomial infections in the ICU the growing importance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Chest; 115 (3 Suppl),34S (1999).

    'Nosocomial infections in the ICU the growing importance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens ' () 115 Chest : 34S.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • File, T. M. Jr. Overview of resistance in the 1990s. Chest; 115 (3 Suppl),3S (1999).

    'Overview of resistance in the 1990s ' () 115 Chest : 3S.

  • Richards, M. J., Edwards, J. R., Culver, D. H., Gaynes, R. P. and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States. Crit Care Med; 27,887 (1999).

    'National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States ' () 27 Crit Care Med : 887.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Abb, J. Five-year surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in large southwestern German community hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect; 287,387 (1999)

    'Five-year surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in large southwestern German community hospital ' () 287 Clin Microbiol Infect : 387.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Edgeworth, J. D., Treacher, D. F., Eykyn, S. J. A 25-year study of nosocomial bacteriaemia in an adult intensive care unit. Crit Care Med; 27,1421 (1999).

    'A 25-year study of nosocomial bacteriaemia in an adult intensive care unit ' () 27 Crit Care Med : 1421.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brooks, G. F., Butel, J. S., Morse, S. A. Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg's Medical Microbiology 21st Ed. Apleton and Lange pp. 145 (1995).

  • Blumberg, P. M., Strominger, J. L. Interaction of penicillin with the bacterial cell Penicillin-binding proteins and penicillin-sensitive enzymes. Bacteriol. Rev; 38,291 (1974).

    'Interaction of penicillin with the bacterial cell Penicillin-binding proteins and penicillin-sensitive enzymes ' () 38 Bacteriol. Rev : 291.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Kiss, J., Biacs, P., Lévai, G., Váczi, L. Mode of action of methicillin on Staphylococcus aureus. Zbl. Bakt. I. Abt; Suppl. 5,1063 (1976).

  • Cormican, M. G., Jones, R. N.: Emerging resistance to antimicrobial agents in gram-positive bacteria. Enterococci, staphylococci and non-pneumococcal streptococci. Drugs; 51 Suppl 1,6 (1996).

    'Emerging resistance to antimicrobial agents in gram-positive bacteria. Enterococci, staphylococci and non-pneumococcal streptococci ' () 51 Drugs : 6.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cars, O. Colonization and infection with resistant gram-positive cocci. Epidemiology and risk factors. Drugs; 54 Suppl 6,4 (1997).

    'Colonization and infection with resistant gram-positive cocci. Epidemiology and risk factors ' () 54 Drugs : 4.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baquero, F. Gram-positive resistance challenge for the development of new antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother.; 39 Suppl A, 1 (1997).

    'Gram-positive resistance challenge for the development of new antibiotics ' () 39 J Antimicrob Chemother : 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barie, P. S. Antibiotic-resistant gram-positive cocci implications for surgical practice. World J Surg 22,118 (1998).

    'Antibiotic-resistant gram-positive cocci implications for surgical practice ' () 22 World J Surg : 118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Biacs, P., Szitha, K., Kiss, J. Effect of methicillin on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci hung; 28,97 (1981).

    'Effect of methicillin on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ' () 28 Acta Microbiol Acad Sci hung; : 97.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grayson, L., Eliopoulos, G. M., Wennerstern, C. Increasing resistance to β-lactam antibiotics among clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium a 22-year review at one institution. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 35,2180 (1991).

    'Increasing resistance to β-lactam antibiotics among clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium a 22-year review at one institution ' () 35 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 2180.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dyke, K., Gregory, P. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Resistance mediated by β-lactamase. In: Crossley, K. B., Archer, G. L. (eds) The staphylococci in human disease. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp. 139 (1997).

    The staphylococci in human disease , () 139.

  • Kiss, L., Toth-Martinez, B. L., Gal, D., Hernadi, F. J., Rozgonyi, F. Investigation of inducible exopenicillinases from eight Staphylococcus aureus strains. Internatl J Clin Chemoter; 4,118 (1999).

    'Investigation of inducible exopenicillinases from eight Staphylococcus aureus strains ' () 4 Internatl J Clin Chemoter : 118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Hahn, H., Labischinski, H., Giesbrecht, P. A novel labeling procedure of anteiso-fatty acid-containing lipids in staphylococci for investigating the effect of penicillin on lipid release. FEMS Microbiol Lett; 77,11 (1990).

    'A novel labeling procedure of anteiso-fatty acid-containing lipids in staphylococci for investigating the effect of penicillin on lipid release ' () 77 FEMS Microbiol Lett : 11.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Samuni, A. A direct spectrophotometric determination of Michaelis constants for the β-lactamase reaction. Anal Biochem; 63,17 (1975).

    'A direct spectrophotometric determination of Michaelis constants for the β-lactamase reaction ' () 63 Anal Biochem : 17.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bush, K., Jacoby, G. A., Medeiros, A. A. A functional classification scheme of β-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 39,1211 (1995).

    'A functional classification scheme of β-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure ' () 39 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 1211.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jeljaszewicz, J., Mlynarczyk, G., Mlynarczyk, A. Present and future problems of antibiotic resistance in gram-positive cocci. Infection; 26,5 (1998).

    'Present and future problems of antibiotic resistance in gram-positive cocci ' () 26 Infection : 5.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kiss, L., Toth-Martinez, B. L., Gal, Z., Hernadi, F. J., Rozgonyi, F. Investigation of inducible exopenicillinases from eight Staphylococcus aureus strains. Internatl J Clin Chemoter; 4,118 (1991).

    'Investigation of inducible exopenicillinases from eight Staphylococcus aureus strains ' () 4 Internatl J Clin Chemoter : 118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Livermore, D. M. β-lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance. Clin Microbial Rev; 8,557 (1995).

    'β-lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance ' () 8 Clin Microbial Rev : 557.

  • Quintiliani, R., Jr., Evers, S., Courvalin, P. The vanB gene confers various levels of self-transferable resistance to vancomycin in enterococci. J Infect Dis; 167,1220 (1993).

    'The vanB gene confers various levels of self-transferable resistance to vancomycin in enterococci ' () 167 J Infect Dis : 1220.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vincent, S., Knight, R. G., Green, M., Sahm, D. F., Shlaes, D. M. Vancomycin susceptibility and identification of motile enterococci. J Clin Microbiol; 29,2335 (1991).

    'Vancomycin susceptibility and identification of motile enterococci ' () 29 J Clin Microbiol : 2335.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sahm, D. F., Olsen, L. In vitro detection of enterococcal vancomycin resistance. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 34,1846 (1990).

    34 1846

  • Ghidán, Á., Jeney, Cs., Maródi, Cs.L., Csiszár, K., Rozgonyi, F. PCR detection of the vanA gene in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate from Hungary. J Antimicrob Chemother; 46,325 (2000)

    'PCR detection of the vanA gene in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate from Hungary ' () 46 J Antimicrob Chemother : 325.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Klare, I., Heier, H., Claus, H. Environmental strains of Enterococcus faecium with inducible high-level resistance to glycopeptides. FEMS Microbiol Lett; 106, 23-30 (1993) and Addendum FEMS Microbiol Lett; 107,349 (1993).

    'Environmental strains of Enterococcus faecium with inducible high-level resistance to glycopeptides ' () 106 FEMS Microbiol Lett : 23 -30.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Klare, I., Heier, H., Claus, H. vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from animal husbandry. FEMS Microbiol Lett; 125,165 (1995).

    'vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from animal husbandry ' () 125 FEMS Microbiol Lett : 165.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kunstmann, M. P., Mitscher, L. A., Porter, J. N. LL-AV290, a new antibiotic. I. Fermentation, isolation, and characterization. Antimicrob Ag Chemother; 37,242 (1996).

    'LL-AV290, a new antibiotic. I. Fermentation, isolation, and characterization ' () 37 Antimicrob Ag Chemother : 242.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murray, B. E., Mederski-Samoraj, B., Foster, S. K. In-vitro studies of plasmid-mediated penicillinase from Streptococcus faecalis suggest a staphylococcal origin. J Clin Invest; 77,289 (1986).

    'In-vitro studies of plasmid-mediated penicillinase from Streptococcus faecalis suggest a staphylococcal origin ' () 77 J Clin Invest : 289.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murray, B. E., Mederski-Samoraj, B. Transferable β-lactamase. A new mechanism for in vitro penicillin resistance in Streptococcus faecalis. J Clin Invest; 72,289 (1983).

    'Transferable β-lactamase. A new mechanism for in vitro penicillin resistance in Streptococcus faecalis ' () 72 J Clin Invest : 289.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • French, G., Abdulla, Y., Heathcock, R. Vancomycin resistance in south London. Lancet; 339,818 (1992).

    'Vancomycin resistance in south London ' () 339 Lancet : 818.

  • Power, E. G. M., Abdulla, Y. H., Talsania, H. G. vanA genes in vancomycin-resistant clinical isolates of Oerskovia turbata and Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) haemolyticum. J Antimicrob Chemother; 36,595 (1995).

    'vanA genes in vancomycin-resistant clinical isolates of Oerskovia turbata and Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) haemolyticum ' () 36 J Antimicrob Chemother : 595.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rozgonyi, F., Knausz, M., Dömötör, I., Gartner, B., Ghidán, Á. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis superinfection during recovery from Neisseria meningitidis cerebrospinal meningitis. Spa J Chemother; 13 Suppl. 2, 120 (2000).

    'Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis superinfection during recovery from Neisseria meningitidis cerebrospinal meningitis ' () 13 Spa J Chemother : 120.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Spratt, B. G. Resistance to antibiotics mediated by target alteration. Science; 264,388 (1994).

    'Resistance to antibiotics mediated by target alteration ' () 264 Science : 388.

  • Bradley, J. S., Connor, J. D. Ceftriaxone failure in meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics. Pediatr Infect Dis J; 10,871 (1991).

    'Ceftriaxone failure in meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics ' () 10 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 871.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hakenbeck, R., Tornette, S., Adkinson, N. F. Interaction of non-lytic beta-lactams with penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Gen Microbiol; 176,333 (1987).

    'Interaction of non-lytic beta-lactams with penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae ' () 176 J Gen Microbiol : 333.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Glatz, K., Szabó, D., Szabó, G., Boriszova, D., Rozgonyi, F. Emergence of extremly high penicillin and cefotaxime resistance and high level levofloxacin resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hungary. J Antimicrob Chemother submitted (2001).

  • Jalal, H., Organji, S., Reynolds, J., Bennett, D., O'Mason, E., Millar, M. R. Determination of penicillin susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae using the polymerase chain reaction. Mol Pathol; 50,45 (1997).

    'Determination of penicillin susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae using the polymerase chain reaction ' () 50 Mol Pathol : 45.

    • Search Google Scholar
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 24 24 6
Full Text Views 3 1 0
PDF Downloads 3 0 0