View More View Less
  • 1 Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universität Würzburg Röntgenring 11, D-97070 Würzburg, Deutschland
  • | 2 Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universität Würzburg Röntgenring 11, D-97070 Würzburg, Deutschland
  • | 3 Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universität Würzburg Röntgenring 11, D-97070 Würzburg, Deutschland
  • | 4 Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universität Würzburg Röntgenring 11, D-97070 Würzburg, Deutschland
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $784.00

Bacterial genomes generally consist of stable regions termed core genome, and variable regions that form the so-called flexible gene pool. The flexible part is composed of bacteriophages, plasmids, transposons as well as unstable large regions that have been termed genomic islands. Genomic islands encoding virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria  have been designated “pathogenicity islands”. Pathogenicity islands were first discovered in uropathogenic Escherichia coli and presently more than 30 bacterial species carrying pathogenicity islands have been described. This review summarises the current knowledge on bacterial genomic islands and their general features, and discusses their putative role in the evolution of microbes in the light of genomics of pathogenic bacteria.

  • Hacker, J., Blum-Oehler, G., Janke, B., Nagy, G., Goebel, W.: Pathogenicity islands of extraintestinal Escherichia coli. In: Kaper, J., Hacker, J. (eds): Pathogenicity islands and other mobile virulence elements. ASM, Washington, 59-76 (1999).

    Pathogenicity islands and other mobile virulence elements. , () 59 -76.

  • Dobrindt, U., Blum-Oehler, G., Nagy, G., Schneider, G., Johann, A., Gottschalk, G., Hacker, J.: Genetic structure and distribution of four pathogenicity islands (PAI I536-PAI IV536) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536. Infect Immun. 70, 6365-6372 (2002).

    'Genetic structure and distribution of four pathogenicity islands (PAI I536-PAI IV536) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536. ' () 70 Infect Immun. : 6365 -6372.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carniel, E., Guilvout, I., Prentice, M.: Characterization of a large chromosomal "high-pathogenicity island" in biotype 1B Yersinia enterocolitica. J Bacteriol 178, 6743-6751 (1996).

    'Characterization of a large chromosomal "high-pathogenicity island" in biotype 1B Yersinia enterocolitica. ' () 178 J Bacteriol : 6743 -6751.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elliott, S. J., Wainwright, L. A., McDaniel, T. K., Jarvis, K. G., Deng, Y. K., Lai, L. C., McNamara, B P., Donnenberg, M. S., Kaper, J. B.: The complete sequence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69. Mol Microbial 28, 1-4 (1998).

    'The complete sequence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69. ' () 28 Mol Microbial : 1 -4.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Karaolis, D. K. R., Johnson, J. A., Bailey, C. C., Boedeker, E. C., Kaper, J. B., Reeves, P. R.: A Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity island associated with epidemic and pandemic strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 3134-3139 (1998).

    'A Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity island associated with epidemic and pandemic strains. ' () 95 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 3134 -3139.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mills, D. M., Bajaj, V. Lee, C. A.: A 40 kb chromosomal fragment encoding Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes is absent from the corresponding region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Mol Microbial 15, 749-759 (1995).

    'A 40 kb chromosomal fragment encoding Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes is absent from the corresponding region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. ' () 15 Mol Microbial : 749 -759.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hensel, M., Nikolaus, T., Egelseer, C.: Molecular and functional analysis indicates a mosaic structure of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Mol Microbial 31, 489-498 (1999).

    'Molecular and functional analysis indicates a mosaic structure of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. ' () 31 Mol Microbial : 489 -498.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim, J. F., Alfano, J. R.: Pathogenicity islands and virulence plasmids of bacterial plant pathogens. Curr Top Microbial Immunal 264/II, 127-147 (2002).

    'Pathogenicity islands and virulence plasmids of bacterial plant pathogens. ' () 264/II Curr Top Microbial Immunal : 127 -147.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Christie, P. J., Vogel, J. P.: Bacterial type IV secretion: conjugation systems adapted to deliver effector molecules to host cells. Trends Microbial 8, 354-360 (2000).

    'Bacterial type IV secretion: conjugation systems adapted to deliver effector molecules to host cells. ' () 8 Trends Microbial : 354 -360.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dobrindt, U., Hacker, J.: Plasmids, phages and pathogenicity islands: lessons on the evolution of bacterial toxins. In: Alouf, J., Freer, J. (eds): The comprehensive sourcebook of bacterial protein toxins. Academic Press, New York, 3-23 (1999).

    The comprehensive sourcebook of bacterial protein toxins. , () 3 -23.

  • Shankar, N., Baghdayan, A. S., Gilmore, M. S.: Modulation of virulence within a pathogenicity island in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Nature 417, 746-750 (2002).

    'Modulation of virulence within a pathogenicity island in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. ' () 417 Nature : 746 -750.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lindsay, J. A., Ruzin, A., Ross, H. F., Kurepina, N., Novick, R. P.: The gene for toxic shock toxin is carried by a family of mobile pathogenicity islands in Staphylococus aureus. Mal Microbial 29, 527-543 (1998).

    'The gene for toxic shock toxin is carried by a family of mobile pathogenicity islands in Staphylococus aureus. ' () 29 Mal Microbial : 527 -543.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rajakumar, K., Sasakawa, C., Adler, B.: Use of a novel approach, termed island probing, identifies the Shigella flexneri she pathogenicity island which encodes a homolog of the immunoglobulin A protease-like family of proteins. Infect Immun 65, 4606-4614 (1997).

    'Use of a novel approach, termed island probing, identifies the Shigella flexneri she pathogenicity island which encodes a homolog of the immunoglobulin A protease-like family of proteins. ' () 65 Infect Immun : 4606 -4614.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cieslewicz, M., Vimr, E.: Reduced polysialic acid capsule expression in Escherichia coli K1 mutants with chromosomal defects in kpsF. Mal Microbial 26, 237-249 (1997).

    'Reduced polysialic acid capsule expression in Escherichia coli K1 mutants with chromosomal defects in kpsF. ' () 26 Mal Microbial : 237 -249.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schubert, S., Rakin A., Karch, H., Carniel, E., Heesemann, J.: Prevalence of the "high-pathogenicity island" of Yersinia species among Escherichia coli strains that are pathogenic to humans. Infect Immun 66, 480-485 (1998).

    'Prevalence of the "high-pathogenicity island" of Yersinia species among Escherichia coli strains that are pathogenic to humans. ' () 66 Infect Immun : 480 -485.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ölschläger, T. A., Zhang, D., Schubert, S., Carniel, E., Rabsch, W., Karch, H., Hacker, J.: The high pathogenicity island is absent in human pathogens of Salmonella enterica subspecies I but present in isolates of subspecies III and VI. J Bacterial 185, 1107-1111 (2003).

    'The high pathogenicity island is absent in human pathogens of Salmonella enterica subspecies I but present in isolates of subspecies III and VI. ' () 185 J Bacterial : 1107 -1111.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moss, J. E., Cardozo, T. J., Zychlinsky, A., Groisman, E. A.: The selC-associated SHI-2 pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri. Mol Microbial 33, 74-83 (1999).

    'The selC-associated SHI-2 pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri. ' () 33 Mol Microbial : 74 -83.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vokes, S. A., Reeves, S. A., Torres, A. G., Payne, S. M.: The aerobactin iron transport system genes in Shigella flexneri are present within a pathogenictiy island. Mol Microbial 33, 63-73 (1999).

    'The aerobactin iron transport system genes in Shigella flexneri are present within a pathogenictiy island. ' () 33 Mol Microbial : 63 -73.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Morschhäuser, J., Vetter, V., Emödy, L., Hacker, J.: Adhesin regulatory genes within large, unstable DNA regions of pathogenic Escherichia coli: cross-talk between different adhesin gene clusters. Mol Microbiol 11, 555-566 (1994).

    'Adhesin regulatory genes within large, unstable DNA regions of pathogenic Escherichia coli: cross-talk between different adhesin gene clusters. ' () 11 Mol Microbiol : 555 -566.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Middendorf, B., Blum-Oehler, G., Dobrindt, U., Mühldorfer, I., Salge, S., Hacker, J.: The pathogenicity island (PAIs) of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536: island probing of PAI II536. J Infect Dis 183, S 17-20 (2001).

    'The pathogenicity island (PAIs) of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536: island probing of PAI II536. ' () 183 J Infect Dis : 17 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hacker, J., Kaper, J. B. (eds): Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of pathogenic microbes. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Vol. 264 (2002).

    Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of pathogenic microbes. , ().

  • Ochman, H., Lawrence, J. G., Groisman, E. A.: Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature 405, 299-304 (2000).

    'Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. ' () 405 Nature : 299 -304.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Salyers, A. A., Shoemaker, N. B., Stevens, A. M., Li, L.-Y.: Conjugative transposons: an unusual and diverse set of integrated gene transfer elements. Microbiol Rev 59, 579-590 (1995).

    'Conjugative transposons: an unusual and diverse set of integrated gene transfer elements. ' () 59 Microbiol Rev : 579 -590.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hacker, J., Bender, L., Ott, M., Wingender, J., Lund, B., Marre, R., Goebel, W.: Deletions of chromosomal regions coding for fimbriae and hemolysins occur in vitro and in vivo in various extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates. Microb Pathog 8, 213-225 (1990).

    'Deletions of chromosomal regions coding for fimbriae and hemolysins occur in vitro and in vivo in various extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates. ' () 8 Microb Pathog : 213 -225.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hacker, J. Kaper, J. B.: Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annu Rev Microbiol 54, 641-679 (2000).

    'Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. ' () 54 Annu Rev Microbiol : 641 -679.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hacker, J., Carniel, E.: Ecological fitness, genomic islands and bacterial pathogenicity. EMBO Rep 2, 376-381 (2001).

    'Ecological fitness, genomic islands and bacterial pathogenicity. ' () 2 EMBO Rep : 376 -381.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Blum, G., Ott, M., Lischewski, A., Ritter, A., Imrich, H., Tschäpe, H., Hacker, J.: Excision of large DNA regions termed pathogenicity islands from tRNA-specific loci in the chromosome of an Escherichia coli wild-type pathogen. Infect Immun 62, 606-614 (1994).

    'Excision of large DNA regions termed pathogenicity islands from tRNA-specific loci in the chromosome of an Escherichia coli wild-type pathogen. ' () 62 Infect Immun : 606 -614.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tóth, I., Oswald, E., Szabó, B., Barcs, I., Emödy, L.: Virulence markers of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in Hungary. In: Emödy, L., Pál, T., Hacker, J., Blum-Oehler, G. (eds): Genes and proteins underlying microbial urinary tract virulence: basic aspects and application. Adv Exp Med Biol 485, 335-338 (2000).

    'Virulence markers of human uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in Hungary. In: Emödy, L., Pál, T., Hacker, J., Blum-Oehler, G. (eds): Genes and proteins underlying microbial urinary tract virulence: basic aspects and application. ' () 485 Adv Exp Med Biol : 335 -338.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tóth, I., Oswald, E., Mainil, J. G., Awad-Masalmeh, M., Nagy, B.: Characterization of intestinal cnfl + Escherichia coli from weaned pigs. Int J Med Microbiol 290, 539-542 (2000).

    'Characterization of intestinal cnfl + Escherichia coli from weaned pigs. ' () 290 Int J Med Microbiol : 539 -542.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jan 2021 15 2 0
Feb 2021 4 0 0
Mar 2021 11 0 0
Apr 2021 2 0 0
May 2021 4 0 0
Jun 2021 8 0 0
Jul 2021 0 0 0