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  • 1 Institute of Virology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava and Institute of Microbiology, Jessenius Medical Faculty of Comenius University Martin, Slovak Republic
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Despite of differences in replication strategy among virus families, some basic principles have remained similar. Analogous mechanisms govern virus entry into cells and the use of enzymes which direct the replication of the virus genome. The function of many cell surface receptors (such as glycosoaminoglycans, glycoproteins, proteins) which interact with viral capsid proteins or envelope glycoproteins has recently been elucidated. The list of cellular receptors (Table I) is still far from being final. The capsid components, similarly as the envelope glycoproteins, may form specific pocket like sites, which interact with the cell surface receptors. Neutralizing antibodies usually react with antigenic domains adjacent to the receptor binding site(s) and hamper the close contact inevitable for virion attachment. In the case of more complex viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, different viral glycoproteins interact with several cellular receptors. At progressed phase of adsorption the virions are engulfed into endocytic vesicles and the virion fusion domain(s) become(s) activated. The outer capsid components of reoviruses which participate in adsorption and fusion may get activated already in the lumen of digestive tract, i.e. before their engulfement by resorptive epithelium cells. Activation of the hydrophobic fusion domain(s) is a further important step allowing to pass through the lipid bilayer when penetrating the cell membrane in order to reach the cytosol. Activation of the virion fusion domain is accomplished by a conformation change, which occurs at acid pH (influenza virus hemagglutinin, s1 protein of the reovirus particle) and/or after protease treatment. The herpes simplex virus fusion factors (gD and gH) undergo conformation changes by a pH-independent mechanism triggered due to interaction with the cell surface receptor(s) and mediated by mutual interactions with the viral envelope glycoproteins. The virion capsid or envelope components participating in the entry and membrane fusion are not the only tools of virulence. The correct function of virus coded proteins, which participate in replication of the viral genome, and/or in the supply of necessary nucleotides, may be very essential. In the case of enteroviruses, which RNA ineracts with ribosomes directly, the correct configuration of the non-coding viral RNA sequence is crucial for initiation of translation occurring in the absence of the classical “cap” structure.

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