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  • 1 (1) Department of Medical Microbiology, Dermatology and Infection, Lund University; (2) Microbiology Research Group, National Center for Epidemiology (1) Lund, Sweden; (2) Pihenő u. 1, H-1529 Budapest, Hungary
  • 2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Dermatology and Infection, Lund University Lund, Sweden
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Animal models greatly facilitate understanding of transmission, pathogenesis and immune responses in HIV and SIV infection and provide models for studies on the effect of candidate drugs or vaccines. However, there are several aspects that one should consider when drawing conclusions from results obtained from animal models. First, the genetic relationship of primate lentiviruses cannot be disregarded because it is known that HIV-1 is more closely related to SIV of chimpanzee origin (SIVcpz) than to SIV from sooty mangabey (SIVsm) origin. Nevertheless, SIVsm and SIVmac are the ones most often used as model systems. Second, there are differences in the biological properties, like CXCR4 use and CD4-independent coreceptor use, of HIV and SIV. These differences might be relevant in virus transmission, pathogenesis and in evoking immune responses. Third, in vivo and in vitro selection may influence the results. Neutralizing antibodies may play a role in selection of variant viruses since neutralization sensitive, CD4-independent SIVsm variants seemed to be suppressed in animals that mounted a neutralizing antibody response. It is tempting to speculate that neutralizing antibodies shape the SIV/HIV infection by selecting variants with a more “closed” envelope conformation with consequences for both receptor binding and neutralization sensitivity.  The SIV/monkey model, although it has important advantages, may not answer all questions asked about HIV-1 infection in human.

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