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  • 1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 2 Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Temesvári krt. 62, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
  • 3 Microbiological Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 4 Microbiological Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 5 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 6 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 7 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
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Peptaibols and the related peptaibiotics are linear, amphipathic polypeptides. More than 300 of these secondary metabolites have been described to date. These compounds are composed of 5-20 amino acids and are generally produced in microheterogeneous mixtures. Peptaibols and peptaibiotics with unusual amino acid content are the result of non-ribosomal biosynthesis. Large multifunctional enzymes known as peptide synthetases assemble these molecules by the multiple carrier thiotemplate mechanism from a remarkable range of precursors, which can be N-methylated, acylated or reduced. Peptaibols and peptaibiotics show interesting physico-chemical and biological properties including the formation of pores in bilayer lipid membranes, as well as antibacterial, antifungal, occasionally antiviral activities, and may elicit plant resistance. The three-dimensional structure of peptaibols and pep­taibiotics is characterized predominantly by one type of the helical motifs a-helix, 310-helix and b-bend ribbon spiral. The aim of this review is to summarize the data available about the biosynthesis, biological activity and conformational properties of peptaibols and peptaibiotics described from Trichoderma species.

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