View More View Less
  • 1 Microbiological Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 2 Microbiological Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 5 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 6 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
  • 7 HAS-USZ Microbiology Research Group, Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged Department of Clinical Microbiology P.O. Box 533, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $784.00

Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and b-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

  • Rodriguez-Kabana, R., Kelley, W. D., Curl, E. A.: Proteolytic activity of Trichoderma viride in mixed cultures with Sclerotium rolfsii in soil. Can J Microbiol 24, 487-490 (1978).

    'Proteolytic activity of Trichoderma viride in mixed cultures with Sclerotium rolfsii in soil ' () 24 Can J Microbiol : 487 -490.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elad, Y., Kapat, A.: The role of Trichoderma harzianum protease in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea. Eur J Plant Pathol 105, 177-189 (1999).

    'The role of Trichoderma harzianum protease in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea ' () 105 Eur J Plant Pathol : 177 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sivan, A., Chet, I.: Degradation of fungal cell walls by lytic enzymes of Trichoderma harzianum. J Gen Microbiol 135, 675-682 (1989).

    'Degradation of fungal cell walls by lytic enzymes of Trichoderma harzianum ' () 135 J Gen Microbiol : 675 -682.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rao, M. B., Tanksale, A. M., Ghatge, M. S., Deshpande, V. V.: Molecular and biotechnological aspects of microbial proteases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62, 597-635 (1998).

    'Molecular and biotechnological aspects of microbial proteases ' () 62 Microbiol Mol Biol Rev : 597 -635.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pitts, J. E.: Crystallization by centrifugation. Nature 355, 117 (1992).

    'Crystallization by centrifugation ' () 355 Nature : 117 -1992.

  • Pitts, J. E., Crawford, M., Nugent, P. G., Western, R., Cooper, J. B., Mäntylä, A., Fager-ström, R., Nevalainen, H.: The three dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the aspartic proteinase native to Trichoderma reesei complexed with renin inhibitor CP-80794. Adv Exp Med Biol 362, 543-547 (1995).

    'The three dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the aspartic proteinase native to Trichoderma reesei complexed with renin inhibitor CP-80794 ' () 362 Adv Exp Med Biol : 543 -547.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Eneyskaya, E. V., Kulminskaya, A. A., Savelev, A. N., Saveleva, N. V., Shabalin, K. A., Neustroev, K. N.: Acid protease from Trichoderma reesei: limited proteolysis of fungal carbohydrases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 52, 226-231 (1999).

    'Acid protease from Trichoderma reesei: limited proteolysis of fungal carbohydrases ' () 52 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol : 226 -231.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vazquez-Garciduenas, S., Leal-Morales, C. A., Herrera-Estrella, A.: Analysis of the β-1,3-glucanolytic system of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 1442-1446 (1998).

    'Analysis of the β-1,3-glucanolytic system of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum ' () 64 Appl Environ Microbiol : 1442 -1446.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ridout, C. J., Coley-Smith, J. R., Lynch, J. M.: Fractionation of extracellular enzymes from a mycoparasitic strain of Trichoderma harzianum. Enzyme Microb Technol 10, 180-187 (1988).

    'Fractionation of extracellular enzymes from a mycoparasitic strain of Trichoderma harzianum ' () 10 Enzyme Microb Technol : 180 -187.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Delgado-Jarana, J., Pintor-Toro, J. A., Benítez, T.: Overproduction of β-1,6-glucanase in Trichoderma harzianum is controlled by extracellular acidic proteases and pH. Biochim Biophys Acta 1481, 289-296 (2000).

    'Overproduction of β-1,6-glucanase in Trichoderma harzianum is controlled by extracellular acidic proteases and pH ' () 1481 Biochim Biophys Acta : 289 -296.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kubicek, C. P., Mach, R. L., Peterbauer, C. K., Lorito, M.: Trichoderma: from genes to biocontrol. J Plant Pathol 83(S2), 11-23 (2001).

    'Trichoderma: from genes to biocontrol ' () 83(S2) J Plant Pathol : 11 -23.

  • Howell, C. R.: Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biological control of plant diseases: the history and evolution of current concepts. Plant Dis 87, 4-10 (2003).

    'Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biological control of plant diseases: the history and evolution of current concepts ' () 87 Plant Dis : 4 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rodriguez-Kabana, R.: Enzymatic interactions of Sclerotium rolfsii and Trichodema viride in mixed soil culture. Phytopathology 59, 910-921 (1969).

    'Enzymatic interactions of Sclerotium rolfsii and Trichodema viride in mixed soil culture ' () 59 Phytopathology : 910 -921.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Antal, Z., Kredics, L., Manczinger, L., Ferenczy, L.: Extracellular enzyme profiles of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. IOBC/wprs Bull 24(3), 337-340 (2001).

    'Extracellular enzyme profiles of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains ' () 24(3) IOBC/wprs Bull : 337 -340.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Manczinger, L., Antal, Z., Schoop, A., Kredics, L.: Characterization of the extracellular enzyme systems of Trichoderma viride AH124. Acta Biol Hung 52, 223-229 (2001).

    'Characterization of the extracellular enzyme systems of Trichoderma viride AH124 ' () 52 Acta Biol Hung : 223 -229.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Manczinger, L., Molnár, A., Kredics, L., Antal, Z.: Production of bacteriolytic enzymes by mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 18, 147-150 (2002).

    'Production of bacteriolytic enzymes by mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains ' () 18 World J Microbiol Biotechnol : 147 -150.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shoemaker, S. P., Brown, R. D.: Characterization of endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases purified from Trichoderma viride. Biochim Biophys Acta 523, 147-161 (1978).

    'Characterization of endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases purified from Trichoderma viride ' () 523 Biochim Biophys Acta : 147 -161.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stahlberg, J., Johansson, G., Pettersson, G.: A binding-site-deficient catalytically active core protein of endoglucanase III from the culture filtrate of Trichoderma reesei. Eur J Biochem 173, 179-184 (1988).

    'A binding-site-deficient catalytically active core protein of endoglucanase III from the culture filtrate of Trichoderma reesei ' () 173 Eur J Biochem : 179 -184.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hagspiel, K., Haab, D., Kubicek, C. P.: Protease activity and proteolytic modification of cellulases from a Trichoderma reesei QM9414 selectant. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 32, 61-67 (1989).

    'Protease activity and proteolytic modification of cellulases from a Trichoderma reesei QM9414 selectant ' () 32 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol : 61 -67.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Triveni, R., Shamala, T. R.: Clarification of xanthan gum with extracellular enzymes secreted by Trichoderma koningii. Process Biochem 34, 49-53 (1999).

    'Clarification of xanthan gum with extracellular enzymes secreted by Trichoderma koningii ' () 34 Process Biochem : 49 -53.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nakayama, M.: The possible proteolytic modification of cellulase components in the aqueous solutions of a crude enzyme preparation from Trichoderma viride. Memoirs Osaka Kyoiku Univ Ser III Nat Sci Appl Sci 24 127-143 (1975).

    'The possible proteolytic modification of cellulase components in the aqueous solutions of a crude enzyme preparation from Trichoderma viride ' () 24 Memoirs Osaka Kyoiku Univ Ser III Nat Sci Appl Sci : 127 -143.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nakayama, M., Tomita, Y., Suzuki, H., Nisizawa, K.: Partial proteolysis of some cellulase components from Trichoderma viride and the substrate specificity of the modified products. J Biochem 79, 955-966 (1976).

    'Partial proteolysis of some cellulase components from Trichoderma viride and the substrate specificity of the modified products ' () 79 J Biochem : 955 -966.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szekeres, A., Kredics, L., Antal, Z., Kevei, F., Manczinger, L.: Isolation and characterization of protease overproducing mutants of Trichoderma harzianum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 233, 215-222 (2004).

    'Isolation and characterization of protease overproducing mutants of Trichoderma harzianum ' () 233 FEMS Microbiol Lett : 215 -222.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kredics, L., Hatvani, L., Antal, Z., Szekeres, A., Manczinger, L., Nagy, E.: Protease over-production in the presence of copper by a Trichoderma harzianum strain with biocontrol potential. IOBC/wprs Bull in press (2005).

  • Robbins, F. M., Allen, A. L., Walker, J. E., Cohen, S. H.: Meat tenderization with a proteolytic enzyme from Trichoderma reesei. US Patent No. 4600589, 1986.

  • Manonmani, H. K., Joseph, R.: Preparation and properties of insolubilized proteinase of Trichoderma koningii. Process Biochem 28, 325-329.

    'Preparation and properties of insolubilized proteinase of Trichoderma koningii ' () 28 Process Biochem : 325 -329.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pozo, M. J., Baek, J. M., Garcia, J. M., Kenerley, C. M.: Functional analysis of tvsp1, a serine protease-encoding gene in the biocontrol agent Trichoderma virens. Fungal Genet Biol 41, 336-348 (2004).

    'Functional analysis of tvsp1, a serine protease-encoding gene in the biocontrol agent Trichoderma virens ' () 41 Fungal Genet Biol : 336 -348.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kubicek, C. P., Eveleigh, D. E., Esterbauer, H., Steiner, W., Kubicek-Pranz, E. M. (eds): Trichoderma reesei cellulases: biodiversity, genetics, physiology and applications. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1990.

    Trichoderma reesei cellulases: biodiversity, genetics, physiology and applications , ().

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harman, G. E.: Myths and dogmas of biocontrol: Changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Dis 84, 377-393 (2000).

    'Myths and dogmas of biocontrol: Changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22 ' () 84 Plant Dis : 377 -393.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mischke, S.: Evaluation of chromogenic substrates for measurement of protease production by biocontrol strains of Trichoderma. Microbios 87, 175-183 (1996).

    'Evaluation of chromogenic substrates for measurement of protease production by biocontrol strains of Trichoderma ' () 87 Microbios : 175 -183.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Flores, A., Chet, I., Herrera-Estrella, A.: Improved biocontrol activity of Trichoderma harzianum by over-expression of the proteinase-encoding gene prb1. Curr Genet 31, 30-37 (1997).

    'Improved biocontrol activity of Trichoderma harzianum by over-expression of the proteinase-encoding gene prb1 ' () 31 Curr Genet : 30 -37.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goldman, M. H. S., Goldman, G. H.: Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions. Gen Mol Biol 21, 329-333 (1998).

    'Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions ' () 21 Gen Mol Biol : 329 -333.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sharon, E., Bar-Eyal, M., Chet, I., Herrera-Estrella, A., Kleifeld, O., Spiegel, Y: Biological control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 91, 687-693 (2001).

    'Biological control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum ' () 91 Phytopathology : 687 -693.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cortes, C., Gutierrez, A., Olmedo, V., Inbar, J., Chet, I., Herrera-Estrella, A.: The expression of genes involved in parasitism by Trichoderma harzianum is triggered by a diffusible factor. Mol Gen Genet 260, 218-225 (1998).

    'The expression of genes involved in parasitism by Trichoderma harzianum is triggered by a diffusible factor ' () 260 Mol Gen Genet : 218 -225.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Olmedo-Monfil, V., Mendoza-Mendoza, A., Gomez, I., Cortes, C., Herrera-Estrella, A.: Multiple environmental signals determine the transcriptional activation of the mycoparasitism related gene prb1 in Trichoderma atroviride. Mol Gen Genom 267, 703-712 (2002).

    'Multiple environmental signals determine the transcriptional activation of the mycoparasitism related gene prb1 in Trichoderma atroviride ' () 267 Mol Gen Genom : 703 -712.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rey, M., Delgado-Jarana, J., Benítez, T.: Improved antifungal activity of a mutant of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 which produces more extracellular proteins. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 55, 604-608 (2001).

    'Improved antifungal activity of a mutant of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 which produces more extracellular proteins ' () 55 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol : 604 -608.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zaldivar, M., Velasquez, J. C., Contreras, I., Perez, L. M.: Trichoderma aureoviride 7-121, a mutant with enhanced production of lytic enzymes: Its potential use in waste cellulose degradation and/or biocontrol. Electr J Biotechnol 4(3), 160-168 (2001).

    'Trichoderma aureoviride 7-121, a mutant with enhanced production of lytic enzymes: Its potential use in waste cellulose degradation and/or biocontrol ' () 4(3) Electr J Biotechnol : 160 -168.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Williams, J., Clarkson, J. M., Mills, P. R., Cooper, R. M.: Saprotrophic and mycoparasitic components of aggressiveness of Trichoderma harzianium groups toward the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 4192-4199 (2003).

    'Saprotrophic and mycoparasitic components of aggressiveness of Trichoderma harzianium groups toward the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus ' () 69 Appl Environ Microbiol : 4192 -4199.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kredics, L., Antal, Z., Szekeres, A., Manczinger, L., Kevei, F., Nagy, E.: Production of extracellular proteases by human pathogenic Trichoderma longibrachiatum strains. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 52, 223-229 (2004).

    'Production of extracellular proteases by human pathogenic Trichoderma longibrachiatum strains ' () 52 Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung : 223 -229.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sanz, L., Montero, M., Grondona, I., Vizcaino, J. A., Llobell, A., Hermosa, R., Monte, E.: Cell wall-degrading isoenzyme profiles of Trichoderma biocontrol strains show correlation with rDNA taxonomic species. Curr Genet 46, 277-286 (2004).

    'Cell wall-degrading isoenzyme profiles of Trichoderma biocontrol strains show correlation with rDNA taxonomic species ' () 46 Curr Genet : 277 -286.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Antal, Z., Manczinger, L., Szakács, G., Tengerdy, R. P., Ferenczy, L.: Colony growth, in vitro antagonism and secretion of extracellular enzymes in cold-tolerant strains of Trichoderma species. Mycol Res 104, 545-549 (2000).

    'Colony growth, in vitro antagonism and secretion of extracellular enzymes in cold-tolerant strains of Trichoderma species ' () 104 Mycol Res : 545 -549.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kredics, L., Manczinger, L., Antal, Z., Pénzes, Z., Szekeres, A., Kevei, F., Nagy, E.: In vitro water activity and pH dependence of mycelial growth and extracellular enzyme activities of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol potential. J Appl Microbiol 96, 491-498 (2004).

    'In vitro water activity and pH dependence of mycelial growth and extracellular enzyme activities of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol potential ' () 96 J Appl Microbiol : 491 -498.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kredics, L., Dóczi, I., Antal, Z., Manczinger, L.: Effect of heavy metals on growth and extracellular enzyme activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 66, 249-254 (2001).

    'Effect of heavy metals on growth and extracellular enzyme activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains ' () 66 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol : 249 -254.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stepanov, V. M., Rudenskaya, G. N., Gaida, A. V., Osterman, A. L.: Affinity chromatography of proteolytic enzymes on silica-based biospecific sorbents. J Biochem Biophys Methods 5, 177-186 (1981).

    'Affinity chromatography of proteolytic enzymes on silica-based biospecific sorbents ' () 5 J Biochem Biophys Methods : 177 -186.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gaida, A. V., Osterman, A. L., Rudenskaia, G. N., Stepanov, V. M.: Carboxylic proteinases from the microscopic fungi Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma lignorum. Biokhimiia 46, 181-189 (1981).

    'Carboxylic proteinases from the microscopic fungi Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma lignorum ' () 46 Biokhimiia : 181 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gaida, A. V., Rudenskaia, G. N., Stepanov, V. M.: Isolation and comparative properties of serine proteinases of the microscopic fungi Trichoderma lignorum and Trichoderma koningii. Biokhimiia 46, 2064-2073 (1981).

    'Isolation and comparative properties of serine proteinases of the microscopic fungi Trichoderma lignorum and Trichoderma koningii ' () 46 Biokhimiia : 2064 -2073.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Geremia, R., Goldman, G. H., Jacobs, D., Ardiles, W., Vila, S. B., Van-Montagu, M., Herrera-Estrella, A.: Molecular characterization of the proteinase-encoding gene prb 1, related to mycoparasitism by Trichoderma harzianum. Mol Microbiol 8, 603-613 (1993).

    'Molecular characterization of the proteinase-encoding gene prb 1, related to mycoparasitism by Trichoderma harzianum ' () 8 Mol Microbiol : 603 -613.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dunaevsky, Y. E., Gruban, T. N., Beliakova, G. A., Belozersky, M. A.: Enzymes secreted by filamentous fungi: Regulation of secretion and purification of an extracellular protease of Trichoderma harzianum. Biochemistry (Moscow) 65, 723-727 (2000).

    'Enzymes secreted by filamentous fungi: Regulation of secretion and purification of an extracellular protease of Trichoderma harzianum ' () 65 Biochemistry (Moscow) : 723 -727.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uchikoba, T., Mase, T., Arima, K., Yonezawa, H., Kaneda, M.: Isolation and characterization of a trypsin-like protease from Trichodermaviride. Biol Chem 382, 1509-1513 (2001).

    'Isolation and characterization of a trypsin-like protease from Trichodermaviride ' () 382 Biol Chem : 1509 -1513.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Suarez, B., Rey, M., Castillo, P., Monte, E., Llobell, A.: Isolation and characterization of PRA1, a trypsin-like protease from the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 displaying nematicidal activity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65, 46-55 (2004).

    'Isolation and characterization of PRA1, a trypsin-like protease from the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 displaying nematicidal activity ' () 65 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol : 46 -55.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Manonmani, H. K., Joseph, R.: Purification and properties of an extracellular proteinase of Trichoderma koningii. Enzyme Microb Technol 15, 624-628 (1993).

    'Purification and properties of an extracellular proteinase of Trichoderma koningii ' () 15 Enzyme Microb Technol : 624 -628.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Marco, J. L., Felix, C. R.: Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease. BMC Biochem 3, (2002).

    'Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease ' () 3 BMC Biochem .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haab, D., Hagspiel, K., Szakmary, K., Kubicek, C. P.: Formation of the extracellular proteases from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 involved in cellulase degradation. J Biotechnol 16, 187-198 (1990).

    'Formation of the extracellular proteases from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 involved in cellulase degradation ' () 16 J Biotechnol : 187 -198.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dunne, C. P.: Relationship between extracellular proteases and the cellulase complex of Trichoderma reesei. In: Chibata, I., Fukui, S., Wingard, L. B. (eds): Enzyme Engineering, Vol. 6. Plenum Press, New York, 1982, pp. 355-356.

    Relationship between extracellular proteases and the cellulase complex of Trichoderma reesei. , () 355 -356.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mendoza-Mendoza, A., Pozo, M., Grzegorski, D., Martinez, P., Garcia, J. M., Olmedo-Monfil, V., Cortes, C., Kenerley, C., Herrera-Estrella, A.: Enhanced biocontrol activity of Trichoderma through inactivation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 15965-15970 (2003).

    'Enhanced biocontrol activity of Trichoderma through inactivation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase ' () 100 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA : 15965 -15970.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Delgado-Jarana, J., Rincón, A. M., Benítez, T.: Aspartyl protease from Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413: cloning and characterization. Microbiology (UK) 148, 1305-1315 (2002).

    'Aspartyl protease from Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413: cloning and characterization ' () 148 Microbiology (UK) : 1305 -1315.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Viterbo, A., Harel, M., Chet, I.: Isolation of two aspartyl proteases from Trichoderma asperellum expressed during colonization of cucumber roots. FEMS Microbiol Lett 238, 151-158 (2004).

    'Isolation of two aspartyl proteases from Trichoderma asperellum expressed during colonization of cucumber roots ' () 238 FEMS Microbiol Lett : 151 -158.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mäntylä, A., Saarelainen, R., Fagerström, R., Suominen, P., Nevalainen, H.: Cloning of the aspartic protease gene from Trichoderma reesei. In: Abstracts of the 2nd European Conference on Fungal Genetics; Lunteren, The Netherlands, 1994, abstract B52.

  • Simankova, A. N., Mirgorodskaya, O. A., Saveleva, N. V., Savelev, A. N., Kerner, R., Rijpstorff, P., Alexandrov, S. L.: Specificity of aspartic protease from fungus Trichoderma viride in the hydrolysis of oligopeptides. Bioorg Khim 24, 822-830 (1998).

    'Specificity of aspartic protease from fungus Trichoderma viride in the hydrolysis of oligopeptides ' () 24 Bioorg Khim : 822 -830.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Margolles-Clark, E., Hayes, C. K., Harman, G. E., Penttila, M.: Improved production of Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase by expression in Trichoderma reesei. Appl Environ Microbiol 62, 2145-2151 (1996).

    'Improved production of Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase by expression in Trichoderma reesei ' () 62 Appl Environ Microbiol : 2145 -2151.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Janas, P.: Production of extracellular enzymes by low-protease mutants of Trichoderma reesei. Acta Sci Pol Technol Alim 2, 103-114 (2003).

    'Production of extracellular enzymes by low-protease mutants of Trichoderma reesei ' () 2 Acta Sci Pol Technol Alim : 103 -114.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mäntylä, A., Paloheimo, M., Suominen, P.: Industrial mutants and recombinant strains of Trichoderma reesei. In: Harman, G. E., Kubicek, C. P. (eds): Trichoderma and Gliocladium, Vol. 2. Taylor and Francis, London, 1998.

    Industrial mutants and recombinant strains of Trichoderma reesei. , ().

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2020 0 5 8
Jul 2020 11 2 4
Aug 2020 13 0 0
Sep 2020 17 0 0
Oct 2020 31 2 3
Nov 2020 7 1 2
Dec 2020 0 0 0