View More View Less
  • 1 Semmelweis University Institute of Medical Microbiology Budapest Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $784.00

Prematurity has got special challenge for clinicians and also other medical staff, such as microbiologists. Immature host defense mechanisms support early-onset sepsis, which can be very serious with very high mortality. While the past decade has been marked by a significant decline in early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis in both term and preterm neonates, the overall incidence of early-onset sepsis has not decreased in many centers, and several studies have found an increase in sepsis due to gram-negative organisms. With increasing survival of these more fastidious preterm infants, late-onset sepsis or specially nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) will continue to be a challenging complication that affects other morbidities, length of hospitalization, cost of care, and mortality rates. Especially the very low birthweight (VLBW) infants sensitive to serious systemic infection during their initial hospital stay. Sepsis caused by multiresistant organisms and Candida spp. are also increasing in incidence, has become the most common cause of death among preterm infants. This review focuses on the clinical microbiology of neonatal sepsis, particularly among preterm babies, summarizing the most frequent bacterial and fungal organisms causing perinatally acquired and also nosocomial sepsis.

  • Andersen, B. M., Lindemann, R., Bergh, K. et al.: Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. aureus in a neonatal intensive unit associated with understaffing, overcrowding and mixing of patients. J Hosp Infect 50 , 18–24 (2002).

    Bergh K. , 'Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. aureus in a neonatal intensive unit associated with understaffing, overcrowding and mixing of patients ' (2002 ) 50 J Hosp Infect : 18 -24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Archibald, L. K., Manning, M. L., Bell, L. M. et al.: Patient density, nurse-to-patient ratio and nosocomial infection risk in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16 , 1045–1048 (1997).

    Bell L. M. , 'Patient density, nurse-to-patient ratio and nosocomial infection risk in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit ' (1997 ) 16 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 1045 -1048.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aziz, K., McMillan, D. D., Andrews, W. et al.: Variations in rates of nosocomial infection among Canadian neonatal intensive care units may be practice-related. BMC Pediatr 5 , 22 (2005).

    Andrews W. , 'Variations in rates of nosocomial infection among Canadian neonatal intensive care units may be practice-related ' (2005 ) 5 BMC Pediatr : 22 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baltimore, R. S.: Neonatal sepsis. Epidemiology and management. Pediatr Drugs 5 , 723–740 (2003).

    Baltimore R. S. , 'Neonatal sepsis. Epidemiology and management ' (2003 ) 5 Pediatr Drugs : 723 -740.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L.: Antimicrobial prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: estimates of risk reduction based on a critical literature review. Pediatrics 103 , e78 (1999).

    Druzin M. L. , 'Antimicrobial prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: estimates of risk reduction based on a critical literature review ' (1999 ) 103 Pediatrics : e78 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Benjamin, D. K. Jr., DeLong, E., Cotton, C. M. et al.: Mortality following blood culture in premature infants: increased with gram-negative bacteremia and candidemia, but not gram-positive bacteremia. J Perinatol 24 , 175–180 (2004).

    Cotton C. M. , 'Mortality following blood culture in premature infants: increased with gram-negative bacteremia and candidemia, but not gram-positive bacteremia ' (2004 ) 24 J Perinatol : 175 -180.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Benjamin, D. K. Jr., Ross, K., McKinney, R. E. Jr. et al.: When to suspect fungal infection in neonates: a clinical comparison of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis fungemia with coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia. Pediatrics 106 , 712–718 (2000).

    McKinney R. E. , 'When to suspect fungal infection in neonates: a clinical comparison of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis fungemia with coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia ' (2000 ) 106 Pediatrics : 712 -718.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Benjamin, D. K. Jr., Miller, W., Garges, H. et al.: Bacteremia, central catheters, and neonates: when to pull the line. Pediatrics 107 , 1272–1276 (2001).

    Garges H. , 'Bacteremia, central catheters, and neonates: when to pull the line ' (2001 ) 107 Pediatrics : 1272 -1276.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Berger, A., Salzer, H. R., Weninger, M. et al.: Septicaemia in an Austrian neonatal intensive care unit: a 7-year analysis. Acta Paediatr 87 , 1066–1069 (1998).

    Weninger M. , 'Septicaemia in an Austrian neonatal intensive care unit: a 7-year analysis ' (1998 ) 87 Acta Paediatr : 1066 -1069.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bindayna, K. M., Jamsheer, A., Farid, E., Botta, G. A.: Neonatal sepsis 1991–2001: Prevalent bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities in Bahrain. Med Princ Pract 15 , 131–136 (2006).

    Botta G. A. , 'Neonatal sepsis 1991–2001: Prevalent bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities in Bahrain ' (2006 ) 15 Med Princ Pract : 131 -136.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bizzarro, M. J., Raskind, C., Baltimore, R. S. et al.: Seventy-five years of neonatal sepsis at Yale: 1928–2003. Pediatrics 116 , 595–602 (2005).

    Baltimore R. S. , 'Seventy-five years of neonatal sepsis at Yale: 1928–2003 ' (2005 ) 116 Pediatrics : 595 -602.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brady, M. T.: Health care-associated infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control 33 , 268–275 (2005).

    Brady M. T. , 'Health care-associated infections in the neonatal intensive care unit ' (2005 ) 33 Am J Infect Control : 268 -275.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brodie, S. B., Sands, K. E., Gray, J. E. et al.: Occurrence of nosocomial bloodstream infection in six neonatal intensive care units. Pediatr Infect Dis J 9 , 56–65 (2000).

    Gray J. E. , 'Occurrence of nosocomial bloodstream infection in six neonatal intensive care units ' (2000 ) 9 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 56 -65.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bromiker, R., Arad, I., Peleg, O., Engelhard, D.: Neonatal bacteremia: patterns of antibiotic resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 22 , 767–770 (2001).

    Engelhard D. , 'Neonatal bacteremia: patterns of antibiotic resistance ' (2001 ) 22 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol : 767 -770.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chapman, R. L., Faix, R. G.: Persistent bacteremia and outcome in late onset infection among infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22 , 17–21 (2003).

    Faix R. G. , 'Persistent bacteremia and outcome in late onset infection among infants in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2003 ) 22 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 17 -21.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Colardyn, F.: Appropriate and timely empirical antimicrobial treatment of ICU infections — a role for carbapenems. Acta Clinica Belgica 60 , 2 (2005).

    Colardyn F. , 'Appropriate and timely empirical antimicrobial treatment of ICU infections — a role for carbapenems ' (2005 ) 60 Acta Clinica Belgica : 2 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Couto, R. C., Carvalho, E. A. A., Pedrosa, T. M. et al.: A 10-year prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units. Am J Infect Control 35 , 183–189 (2007).

    Pedrosa T. M. , 'A 10-year prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units ' (2007 ) 35 Am J Infect Control : 183 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Crivaro, V., Bagattini, M., Salza, M. F. et al.: Risk factors for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive-care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 27 , 571–575 (2006).

    Salza M. F. , 'Risk factors for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive-care unit ' (2006 ) 27 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol : 571 -575.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Crump, J. A., Collingnon, P. J.: Risk factors for extended-spectrum B-lactamase-producing Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 67 , 135–141 (2007).

    Collingnon P. J. , 'Risk factors for extended-spectrum B-lactamase-producing Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2007 ) 67 J Hosp Infect : 135 -141.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Crump, J. A., Collingnon, P. J.: Intravascular catheter-associated infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 19 , 1–8 (2000).

    Collingnon P. J. , 'Intravascular catheter-associated infections ' (2000 ) 19 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis : 1 -8.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • de Man, P., Verhoeven, B. A. N., Verbrugh, H. A. et al.: An antibiotic policy to prevent emergence of resistant bacilli. Lancet 355 , 973–978 (2000).

    Verbrugh H. A. , 'An antibiotic policy to prevent emergence of resistant bacilli ' (2000 ) 355 Lancet : 973 -978.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fahey, J. O.: Clinical management of intra-amniotic infection and chorioamnionitis: A review of the literature. J Midwifery Womens Health 53 , 227–235 (2008).

    Fahey J. O. , 'Clinical management of intra-amniotic infection and chorioamnionitis: A review of the literature ' (2008 ) 53 J Midwifery Womens Health : 227 -235.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fanos, V., Dall’Agnola, A.: Antibiotics in neonatal infections. Drugs 58 , 405–427 (1999).

    Dall’Agnola A. , 'Antibiotics in neonatal infections ' (1999 ) 58 Drugs : 405 -427.

  • Foca, M., Jakob, K., Whittier, S. et al.: Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. N Engl J Med 343 , 695–700 (2000).

    Whittier S. , 'Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2000 ) 343 N Engl J Med : 695 -700.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Galanakis, E., Krallis, N., Levidiotou, S. et al.: Neonatal bacteremia: a population based study. Scand J Infect Dis 34 , 598–601 (2002).

    Levidiotou S. , 'Neonatal bacteremia: a population based study ' (2002 ) 34 Scand J Infect Dis : 598 -601.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garcia-Prats, J. A., Cooper, T. R., Schneider, V. F. et al.: Rapid detection of microorganisms in blood cultures of newborn infants utilizing an automated blood culture system. Pediatrics 105 , 523–527 (2000).

    Schneider V. F. , 'Rapid detection of microorganisms in blood cultures of newborn infants utilizing an automated blood culture system ' (2000 ) 105 Pediatrics : 523 -527.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gastmeier, P., Hentschel, J., De Veer, I. et al.: Device-associated nosocomial infection surveillance in neonatal intensive care using specified criteria for neonates. J Hosp Infect 38 , 51–60 (1998).

    Veer I. , 'Device-associated nosocomial infection surveillance in neonatal intensive care using specified criteria for neonates ' (1998 ) 38 J Hosp Infect : 51 -60.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gastmeier, P., Loui, A., Stamm-Balderjahn, S. et al.: Outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units — They are not like others. Am J Infect Control 35 , 172–176 (2007).

    Stamm-Balderjahn S. , 'Outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units — They are not like others ' (2007 ) 35 Am J Infect Control : 172 -176.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goldmann, D. A.: The bacterial flora of neonates in intensive care-monitoring and manipulation. J Hosp Infect 11 , 340–351 (1988).

    Goldmann D. A. , 'The bacterial flora of neonates in intensive care-monitoring and manipulation ' (1988 ) 11 J Hosp Infect : 340 -351.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gupta, C., Briski, L. E.: Comparison of two culture media and three sampling techniques for sensitive and rapid screening of vaginal colonization by Group B Streptococcus in pregnant women. J Clin Microbiol 42 , 3975–3977 (2004).

    Briski L. E. , 'Comparison of two culture media and three sampling techniques for sensitive and rapid screening of vaginal colonization by Group B Streptococcus in pregnant women ' (2004 ) 42 J Clin Microbiol : 3975 -3977.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haque, K. N., Khan, M. A., Kerry, S. et al.: Pattern of culture-proven neonatal sepsis in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25 , 759–764 (2004).

    Kerry S. , 'Pattern of culture-proven neonatal sepsis in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom ' (2004 ) 25 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol : 759 -764.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harbarth, S., Sudre, P., Dharan, S. et al.: Outbreak of Enterobacter cloaceae related to understaffing, overcrowding, and poor hygiene practices. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 20 , 598–603 (1999).

    Dharan S. , 'Outbreak of Enterobacter cloaceae related to understaffing, overcrowding, and poor hygiene practices ' (1999 ) 20 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol : 598 -603.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hervass, J. A., Ballesteros, F., Alomar, A. et al.: Increase of Enterobacter in neonatal sepsis: a twenty-two-year study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19 , 319–324 (2001).

    Alomar A. , 'Increase of Enterobacter in neonatal sepsis: a twenty-two-year study ' (2001 ) 19 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 319 -324.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Horan, T. C., Gaynes, R. P.: Surveillance of nosocomial infcetions. In: Mayhall, C. G. (ed.): Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2004, pp. 1659–1702.

    Gaynes R. P. , '', in Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control , (2004 ) -.

  • Huang, Y. C., Su, L. H., Wu, T. L., Lin, T. Y.: Genotyping analysis of colonizing candidal isolates from very-low-birthweight infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 58 , 200–203 (2004).

    Lin T. Y. , 'Genotyping analysis of colonizing candidal isolates from very-low-birthweight infants in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2004 ) 58 J Hosp Infect : 200 -203.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jaballah, N. B., Bouziri, A., Mnif, K. et al.: Epidemiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in a Tunisian pediatric intensive care unit: A 2-year prospective study. Am J Infect Control 35 , 613–618 (2007).

    Mnif K. , 'Epidemiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in a Tunisian pediatric intensive care unit: A 2-year prospective study ' (2007 ) 35 Am J Infect Control : 613 -618.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jeong, I. S., Jeong, J. S., Choi, E. O.: Nosocomial infection in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), South Korea. BMC Infect Dis 6 , 103 (2006).

    Choi E. O. , 'Nosocomial infection in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), South Korea ' (2006 ) 6 BMC Infect Dis : 103 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jiang, J. H., Chiu, N. C., Huang, F. Y. et al.: Neonatal sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit: characteristics of early versus late onset. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 37 , 301–306 (2004).

    Huang F. Y. , 'Neonatal sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit: characteristics of early versus late onset ' (2004 ) 37 J Microbiol Immunol Infect : 301 -306.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jolley, A. E.: The value of surveillance cultures on neonatal intensive care units. J Hosp Infect 25 , 153–159 (1993).

    Jolley A. E. , 'The value of surveillance cultures on neonatal intensive care units ' (1993 ) 25 J Hosp Infect : 153 -159.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Karlowitz, M. G., Buescher, E. S., Surka, A. E.: Fulminant late-onset sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit, 1988–1997, and the impact of avoiding empiric vancomycin therapy. Pediatrics 106 , 1387–1390 (2000).

    Surka A. E. , 'Fulminant late-onset sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit, 1988–1997, and the impact of avoiding empiric vancomycin therapy ' (2000 ) 106 Pediatrics : 1387 -1390.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaufman, D., Fairchild, K. D.: Clinical microbiology of bacterial and fungal sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. Clin Microbiol Rev 17 , 638–680 (2004).

    Fairchild K. D. , 'Clinical microbiology of bacterial and fungal sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants ' (2004 ) 17 Clin Microbiol Rev : 638 -680.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kawagoe, J. Y., Segre, C. A. M., Pereira, C. R. et al.: Risk factors for nosocomial infections in critically ill newborns: a 5-year prospective cohort study. Am J Infect Control 29 , 109–114 (2001).

    Pereira C. R. , 'Risk factors for nosocomial infections in critically ill newborns: a 5-year prospective cohort study ' (2001 ) 29 Am J Infect Control : 109 -114.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Keyserling, H. L., Sinkowitz-Cochran, R. L., Harris, J. M. et al.: Vancomycin use in hospitalized pediatric patients. Pediatrics 112 , 104–111 (2003).

    Harris J. M. , 'Vancomycin use in hospitalized pediatric patients ' (2003 ) 112 Pediatrics : 104 -111.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim, S. D., McDonald, L. C., Jarvis, W. R. et al.: Determining the significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures at a community hospital: a role for species and strain identification. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 21 , 213–217 (2000).

    Jarvis W. R. , 'Determining the significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures at a community hospital: a role for species and strain identification ' (2000 ) 21 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol : 213 -217.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kollef, M. H.: The prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. N Eng J Med 340 , 627–633 (1999).

    Kollef M. H. , 'The prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia ' (1999 ) 340 N Eng J Med : 627 -633.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kollef, M. H.: Appropriate empirical antibacterial therapy for nosocomial infections. Getting it right the first time. Drugs 63 , 2157–2168 (2003).

    Kollef M. H. , 'Appropriate empirical antibacterial therapy for nosocomial infections. Getting it right the first time ' (2003 ) 63 Drugs : 2157 -2168.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kristóf, K., Barcs, I., Cziniel, M. et al.: Connatal listeriosis — a case report and the possibilities of microbiological diagnosis. Acta Microbiol Hung 55 , 63–72 (2008).

    Cziniel M. , 'Connatal listeriosis — a case report and the possibilities of microbiological diagnosis ' (2008 ) 55 Acta Microbiol Hung : 63 -72.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kristóf, K., Szabo, D., Marsh, J. W. et al.: Extended-spectrum B-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp. in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for the infection and the dynamics of the molecular epidemiology. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26 , 563–570 (2007).

    Marsh J. W. , 'Extended-spectrum B-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp. in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for the infection and the dynamics of the molecular epidemiology ' (2007 ) 26 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis : 563 -570.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ladhani, S., Grandsen, W.: Septicaemia due to glucose non-fermenting, Gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children. Acta Paediatr 91 , 303–306 (2002).

    Grandsen W. , 'Septicaemia due to glucose non-fermenting, Gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children ' (2002 ) 91 Acta Paediatr : 303 -306.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Larsen, J. W., Sever, J. L.: Group B Streptococcus and pregnancy: a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 198 , 440–450 (2008).

    Sever J. L. , 'Group B Streptococcus and pregnancy: a review ' (2008 ) 198 Am J Obstet Gynecol : 440 -450.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lau, Y. L., Hey, E.: Sensitivity and specificity of daily tracheal aspirate cultures in predicting organisms causing bacteremia in ventilated neonates. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10 , 290–294 (1991).

    Hey E. , 'Sensitivity and specificity of daily tracheal aspirate cultures in predicting organisms causing bacteremia in ventilated neonates ' (1991 ) 10 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 290 -294.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mahieu, L. M., Buitenweg, N., Beutels, P., De Dooy, J. J.: Additional hospital stay and charges due to hospital-aquired infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 47 , 223–229 (2001).

    Dooy J. J. , 'Additional hospital stay and charges due to hospital-aquired infections in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2001 ) 47 J Hosp Infect : 223 -229.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Prediction of nosocomial sepsis in neonates by means of a computer-weighted bedside scoring system (NOSEP score). Crit Care Med 28 , 2026–2033 (2000).

  • Makhoul, I. R., Sujov, P., Smolkin, T. et al.: Pathogen-specific early mortality in very low birth weight infants with late-onset sepsis: a national survey. CID 40 , 218–224 (2005).

    Smolkin T. , 'Pathogen-specific early mortality in very low birth weight infants with late-onset sepsis: a national survey ' (2005 ) 40 CID : 218 -224.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Makhoul, I. R., Sujov, P., Smolkin, T. et al.: Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of late-onset sepsis among very low birth weight infants in Israel: a national survey. Pediatrics 109 , 34–39 (2002).

    Smolkin T. , 'Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of late-onset sepsis among very low birth weight infants in Israel: a national survey ' (2002 ) 109 Pediatrics : 34 -39.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Manzoni, P., Farina, D., Galletto, P. et al.: Type and number of sites colonized by fungi and risk of progression to invasive fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinat Med 35 , 220–226 (2007).

    Galletto P. , 'Type and number of sites colonized by fungi and risk of progression to invasive fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care unit ' (2007 ) 35 J Perinat Med : 220 -226.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mireya, U. A., Marti, P. O., Xavier, K. V. et al.: Nosocomial infections in paediatric and neonatal intensive care units. J Infect 54 , 212–220 (2007).

    Xavier K. V. , 'Nosocomial infections in paediatric and neonatal intensive care units ' (2007 ) 54 J Infect : 212 -220.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nagata, E., Brito, A., Matsuo, T.: Nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit: incidence and risk factors. Am J Infect Control 30 , 26–31 (2002).

    Matsuo T. , 'Nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit: incidence and risk factors ' (2002 ) 30 Am J Infect Control : 26 -31.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nambiar, S., Singh, N.: Change in epidemiology of health care-associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21 , 839–842 (2002).

    Singh N. , 'Change in epidemiology of health care-associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2002 ) 21 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 839 -842.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ng, P. C., Lam, H. S.: Diagnostic markers for neonatal sepsis. Curr Opin Pediatr 18 , 125–131 (2006).

    Lam H. S. , 'Diagnostic markers for neonatal sepsis ' (2006 ) 18 Curr Opin Pediatr : 125 -131.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Park, C. H., Seo, J. H., Lim, J. Y. et al.: Changing trend of neonatal infection: Experience at a newly established regional medical center in Korea. Pediatrics International 49 , 24–30 (2007).

    Lim J. Y. , 'Changing trend of neonatal infection: Experience at a newly established regional medical center in Korea ' (2007 ) 49 Pediatrics International : 24 -30.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Patrick, C. C., Kaplan, S. L., Baker, C. J. et al.: Persistent bacteremia due to coagulase-negative staphylococci in low birth weight neonates. Pediatrics 84 , 977–985 (1989).

    Baker C. J. , 'Persistent bacteremia due to coagulase-negative staphylococci in low birth weight neonates ' (1989 ) 84 Pediatrics : 977 -985.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Persson, E., Trollfors, B., Brandberg, L. L., Tessin, I.: Septicaemia and meningitis in neonates and during early infancy in the Göteborg area of Sweden. Acta Paediatr 91 , 1087–1092 (2002).

    Tessin I. , 'Septicaemia and meningitis in neonates and during early infancy in the Göteborg area of Sweden ' (2002 ) 91 Acta Paediatr : 1087 -1092.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pessoa-Silva, C. L., Moreira, B. M., Almeida, V. C. et al.: Extended-spectrum B-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for infection and colonization. J Hosp Infect 53 , 198–206 (2003).

    Almeida V. C. , 'Extended-spectrum B-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for infection and colonization ' (2003 ) 53 J Hosp Infect : 198 -206.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Phares, C. R., Lynfield, R., Farley, M. M. et al.: Epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcal disease in the United States, 1999–2005. JAMA 299 , 2056–2065 (2008).

    Farley M. M. , 'Epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcal disease in the United States, 1999–2005 ' (2008 ) 299 JAMA : 2056 -2065.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: revised guideline from CDC. MMWR Recomm Rep 51 (RR-11), 1–22 (2002).

  • Quinn, J. P., Rodvold, K. A.: Antibiotic policies in neonatal intensive-care units. Lancet 355 , 946–947 (2000).

    Rodvold K. A. , 'Antibiotic policies in neonatal intensive-care units ' (2000 ) 355 Lancet : 946 -947.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rallu, F., Barriga, P., Scrivo, C. et al.: Sensitivities of antigen detection and PCR assays greatly increased compared to that of the standard culture method for screening for group B Streptococcus carriage in pregnant woman. J Clin Microbiol 44 , 725–728 (2006).

    Scrivo C. , 'Sensitivities of antigen detection and PCR assays greatly increased compared to that of the standard culture method for screening for group B Streptococcus carriage in pregnant woman ' (2006 ) 44 J Clin Microbiol : 725 -728.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Raymond, J., Aujard, Y., The European Study Group: Nosocomial infections in paediatric patients: a European, multicenter prospective study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 21 , 260–263 (2000).

    Aujard Y. , 'The European Study Group: Nosocomial infections in paediatric patients: a European, multicenter prospective study ' (2000 ) 21 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol : 260 -263.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rubin, L. G., Sanchez, P. J., Siegel, J. et al.: Evaluation and treatment of neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis: a survey of neonatologists’ practices. Pediatrics 110 , e42 (2002).

    Siegel J. , 'Evaluation and treatment of neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis: a survey of neonatologists’ practices ' (2002 ) 110 Pediatrics : e42 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sabui, T., Tudehope, D., Tilse, M.: Clinical significance of quantitative blood cultures in newborn infants. J Pediatr Child Health 35 , 578–581 (1999).

    Tilse M. , 'Clinical significance of quantitative blood cultures in newborn infants ' (1999 ) 35 J Pediatr Child Health : 578 -581.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saiman, L., Ludington, E., Pfaller, M. et al.: Risk factors for candidemia in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 20 , 134–140 (2001).

    Pfaller M. , 'Risk factors for candidemia in neonatal intensive care unit patients ' (2001 ) 20 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 134 -140.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saiman, L.: Strategies for prevention of nosocomial sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit. Curr Opin Pediatr 18 , 101–106 (2006).

    Saiman L. , 'Strategies for prevention of nosocomial sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit ' (2006 ) 18 Curr Opin Pediatr : 101 -106.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saiman, L.: Risk factors for hospital-acquired infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. Seminars in Perinatology 26 , 315–321 (2002).

    Saiman L. , 'Risk factors for hospital-acquired infections in the neonatal intensive care unit ' (2002 ) 26 Seminars in Perinatology : 315 -321.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schrag, S. J., Zell, E. R., Lynfield, R. et al.: A population-based comparison of strategies to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease in neonates. N Eng J Med 347 , 233–239 (2002).

    Lynfield R. , 'A population-based comparison of strategies to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease in neonates ' (2002 ) 347 N Eng J Med : 233 -239.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schrag, S. J., Zywicki, S., Farley, M. M. et al.: Group B streptococcal disease in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. N Eng J Med 342 , 15–20 (2000).

    Farley M. M. , 'Group B streptococcal disease in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis ' (2000 ) 342 N Eng J Med : 15 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schuchat, A., Zywicki, S. S., Dinsmoor, M. J. et al.: Risk factors and opportunities for prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis: a multicenter case-control study. Pediatrics 105 , 21–26 (2000).

    Dinsmoor M. J. , 'Risk factors and opportunities for prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis: a multicenter case-control study ' (2000 ) 105 Pediatrics : 21 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shah, S., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Gallagher, P. G.: Increasing incidence of Gram-negative rod bacteremia in a newborn intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18 , 591–595 (1999).

    Gallagher P. G. , 'Increasing incidence of Gram-negative rod bacteremia in a newborn intensive care unit ' (1999 ) 18 Pediatr Infect Dis J : 591 -595.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Silva, G. D. I., Kantzanou, M., Justice, A. et al.: The ica operon and biofilm production in coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with carriage and disease in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Clin Microbiol 40 , 382–388 (2002).

    Justice A. , 'The ica operon and biofilm production in coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with carriage and disease in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2002 ) 40 J Clin Microbiol : 382 -388.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Singh-Naz, N., Rakowsky, A., Cantwell, E. et al.: Nosocomial enterococcal infections in children. J Infect 40 , 145–149 (2000).

    Cantwell E. , 'Nosocomial enterococcal infections in children ' (2000 ) 40 J Infect : 145 -149.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Slagle, T. A., Bifano, E. M., Wolf, J. W., Gross, S. J.: Routine endotracheal cultures for the prediction of sepsis in ventilated babies. Archives of Disease in Childhood 64 , 34–38 (1989).

    Gross S. J. , 'Routine endotracheal cultures for the prediction of sepsis in ventilated babies ' (1989 ) 64 Archives of Disease in Childhood : 34 -38.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sohn, A. H., Garrett, D. O., Sinkowitz-Cochran, R. L. et al.: Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units patients: results from the first national point-prevalence survey. J Pediatr 139 , 821–827 (2001).

    Sinkowitz-Cochran R. L. , 'Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units patients: results from the first national point-prevalence survey ' (2001 ) 139 J Pediatr : 821 -827.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stoll, B. J., Gordon, T., Korones, S. B. et al.: Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr 129 , 63–71 (1996).

    Korones S. B. , 'Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network ' (1996 ) 129 J Pediatr : 63 -71.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stoll, B. J., Hansen, N., Fanaroff, A. A. et al.: Changes in pathogens causing early-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. N Eng J Med 347 , 240–247 (2002).

    Fanaroff A. A. , 'Changes in pathogens causing early-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants ' (2002 ) 347 N Eng J Med : 240 -247.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stoll, B. J., Hansen, N., Fanaroff, A. A. et al.: Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 110 , 285–291 (2002).

    Fanaroff A. A. , 'Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network ' (2002 ) 110 Pediatrics : 285 -291.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stover, B. H., Shulman, S. T., Bratcher, D. F. et al.: Nosocomial infection rates in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. Am J Infect Control 29 , 152–157 (2001).

    Bratcher D. F. , 'Nosocomial infection rates in US children’s hospitals’ neonatal and pediatric intensive care units ' (2001 ) 29 Am J Infect Control : 152 -157.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szabo, D., Filetoth, Z., Szentandrassy, J. et al.: Molecular epidemiology of a cluster of cases due to Klebsiella pneumoniae producing SHV-5 extended-spectrum B-lactamase in the premature intensive care unit of a Hungarian hospital. J Clin Microbiol 37 , 4167–4169 (1999).

    Szentandrassy J. , 'Molecular epidemiology of a cluster of cases due to Klebsiella pneumoniae producing SHV-5 extended-spectrum B-lactamase in the premature intensive care unit of a Hungarian hospital ' (1999 ) 37 J Clin Microbiol : 4167 -4169.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szabo, D., Silveira, F., Fujitani, S., Paterson, D. L.: Mechanisms of resistance of bacteria causing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Chest Med 26 , 75–79 (2005).

    Paterson D. L. , 'Mechanisms of resistance of bacteria causing ventilator-associated pneumonia ' (2005 ) 26 Clin Chest Med : 75 -79.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • The International Neonatal Network: The CRIB (clinical risk index for babies) score: a tool for assessing initial neonatal risk and comparing performance of neonatal intensive care units. Lancet 342 , 193–198 (1993).

    'The CRIB (clinical risk index for babies) score: a tool for assessing initial neonatal risk and comparing performance of neonatal intensive care units ' (1993 ) 342 Lancet : 193 -198.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tseng, Y. C., Chiu, Y. C., Wang, J. H. et al.: Nosocomial bloodstream infection in a neonatal intensive care unit of a medical center: a three-year review. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 35 , 168–172 (2002).

    Wang J. H. , 'Nosocomial bloodstream infection in a neonatal intensive care unit of a medical center: a three-year review ' (2002 ) 35 J Microbiol Immunol Infect : 168 -172.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tullu, M. S., Deshmukh, C. T., Baveja, S. M.: Bacterial nosocomial pneumonia in paediatric intensive care unit. J Postgrad Med 46 , 18–22 (2000).

    Baveja S. M. , 'Bacterial nosocomial pneumonia in paediatric intensive care unit ' (2000 ) 46 J Postgrad Med : 18 -22.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Usukara, Y., Igarashi, T.: Examination of severe, hospital acquired infcetions affecting extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. Pediatrics International 45 , 230–232 (2003).

    Igarashi T. , 'Examination of severe, hospital acquired infcetions affecting extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants ' (2003 ) 45 Pediatrics International : 230 -232.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • van der Zwet, W. C., Kaiser, A. M., van Elburg, R. M. et al.: Nosocomial infections in a Dutch neonatal intensive care unit: surveillance study with definitions for infection specifically adapted for neonates. J Hosp Infect 61 , 300–311 (2005).

    Elburg R. M. , 'Nosocomial infections in a Dutch neonatal intensive care unit: surveillance study with definitions for infection specifically adapted for neonates ' (2005 ) 61 J Hosp Infect : 300 -311.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vesikari, T., Janas, M., Gröngroos, P. et al.: Neonatal septicemia. Arch Dis Child 60 , 542–546 (1985).

    Gröngroos P. , 'Neonatal septicemia ' (1985 ) 60 Arch Dis Child : 542 -546.

  • Vidyasagar, D.: A new score to detect neonatal nosocomial infection: ‘a rule of 14’. Crit Care Med 28 , 2166–2167 (2000).

    Vidyasagar D. , 'A new score to detect neonatal nosocomial infection: ‘a rule of 14’ ' (2000 ) 28 Crit Care Med : 2166 -2167.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Villari, P., Sarnatoro, C., Lacuzio, L.: Molecular epidemiology of a Staphylococcus epidermidis in a neonatal intensive care unit over a three year period. J Clin Microbiol 38 , 1740–1746 (2000).

    Lacuzio L. , 'Molecular epidemiology of a Staphylococcus epidermidis in a neonatal intensive care unit over a three year period ' (2000 ) 38 J Clin Microbiol : 1740 -1746.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • von Baum, H., Lin, D., Wendt, C.: Prevalence of colonisation with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriacae in ICU patients of Heidelberg University Hospitals. Clin Microbiol Infect 10 , 436–440 (2004).

    Wendt C. , 'Prevalence of colonisation with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriacae in ICU patients of Heidelberg University Hospitals ' (2004 ) 10 Clin Microbiol Infect : 436 -440.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Von Dolinger de Brito, D., de Almeida Silva, H., Jose Oliveira, E. et al.: Effect of neonatal intensive care unit environment on the incidence of hospital-acquired infection in neonates. J Hosp Infect 65 , 314–318 (2007).

    Jose Oliveira E. , 'Effect of neonatal intensive care unit environment on the incidence of hospital-acquired infection in neonates ' (2007 ) 65 J Hosp Infect : 314 -318.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wei, S. H., Chiu, H. H., Hung, K. C. et al.: Epidemiologic trends in nosocomial bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 38 , 283–288 (200).

  • Weinstein, R. A.: Laboratory role in the management of hospital acquired infections. Review Emerg Infect Dis 7 , 188–192 (2001).

    Weinstein R. A. , 'Laboratory role in the management of hospital acquired infections ' (2001 ) 7 Review Emerg Infect Dis : 188 -192.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wilson, M. P., Spencer, R. C.: Predominance of Gram-negative bacilli and increasing antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial bloodstream infections at a university hospital in southern Taiwan, 1996–2003. J Hosp Infect 42 , 1–6 (1999).

    Spencer R. C. , 'Predominance of Gram-negative bacilli and increasing antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial bloodstream infections at a university hospital in southern Taiwan, 1996–2003 ' (1999 ) 42 J Hosp Infect : 1 -6.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wu, C. J., Lee, H. C., Lee, N. Y. et al.: Controlling antimicrobial resistance in hospitals: infection control and use of antibiotics. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 39 , 135–143 (2006).

    Lee N. Y. , 'Controlling antimicrobial resistance in hospitals: infection control and use of antibiotics ' (2006 ) 39 J Microbiol Immunol Infect : 135 -143.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yu, W., Cheng, H., Lin, H. et al.: Outbreak investigation of nosocomial Enterobacter cloaceae bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit. Scand J Infect Dis 32 , 293–298 (2000).

    Lin H. , 'Outbreak investigation of nosocomial Enterobacter cloaceae bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit ' (2000 ) 32 Scand J Infect Dis : 293 -298.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zaidi, A. K., Huskins, W. C., Thaver, D. et al.: Hospital-aquired neonatal infections in developing countries. Lancet 365 , 1175–1188 (2005).

    Thaver D. , 'Hospital-aquired neonatal infections in developing countries ' (2005 ) 365 Lancet : 1175 -1188.

    • Search Google Scholar
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 247 247 23
Full Text Views 29 23 0
PDF Downloads 30 19 0