View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Epidemiology Division of Virology Budapest Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $784.00

The presence of WNV in Europe has been well known for decades, although the first human infections and avian outbreaks were diagnosed in Hungary only in 2003. An annual average of 6–8 cases of the neuroinvasive form of WNV infection has been detected in the region since then, but a higher number (17) of WNV associated neuroinvasive disease occurred in 2008.In 2004, a surveillance system was established for monitoring WNV-associated meningo-encephalitis cases in Hungary, but a milder type of illness (with fever, rash and/or influenza like symptoms) is not followed. Fifty-two sera of 45 patients with mild clinical symptoms (fever, exanthema) were tested for anti-WNV antibodies in 2008 in a retrospective study by immunofluorescence test and ELISA. Seven patients had antibodies against WNV, serologic evidence of recent WNV infection was found in 4 out of the 7 patients. Infections could be acquired predominantly in August and in September, which seems to be a risk period for WNV in Hungary.The possibility of a recent WNV infection should be taken into consideration in the occurrence of fever and rush at late summer. Differential diagnosis of exanthematous patients should include WNV serology tests and should be done routinely.

  • Epstein, P. R.: West Nile virus and the climate. J. Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 78, 367–371 (2001).

    Epstein P. R. , 'West Nile virus and the climate ' (2001 ) 78 J. Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. : 367 -371.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rappole, J. H., Derrickson, S. R., Hubálek, Z.: Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Emerg. Inf. Dis. 6, 319–328. (2000).

    Hubálek Z. , 'Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere ' (2000 ) 6 Emerg. Inf. Dis. : 319 -328.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Seyler, T., Rizzo, C., Finarelli, A. C., Po, C., Alessio, P., Sambri, V., Ciofi Degli Atti, M. L., Salmaso, S.: Autochthonous chikungunya virus transmission may have occurred in Bologna, Italy, during the summer 2007 outbreak. Euro Surveill. 13, pii=8015 (2008).

  • La Ruche, G., Souarès, Y., Armengaud, A., Peloux-Petiot, F., Delaunay, P., Desprès, P., Lenglet, A., Jourdain, F., Leparc-Goffart, I., Charlet, F., Ollier, L., Mantey, K., Mollet, T., Fournier, J. P., Torrents, R., Leitmeyer, K., Hilairet, P., Zeller, H., Van Bortel, W., Dejour-Salamanca, D., Grandadam, M., Gastellu-Etchegorry, M.: First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010. Euro Surveill. 15, 19676 (2010).

    Gastellu-Etchegorry M. , 'First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010 ' (2010 ) 15 Euro Surveill. : 19676 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moi, M. L., Ujiie, M., Takasaki, T., Kurane, I.: Dengue virus infection in travellers returning from Benin to France, July–August, 2010. Euro Surveill. 15, 19674 (2010).

    Kurane I. , 'Dengue virus infection in travellers returning from Benin to France, July–August, 2010 ' (2010 ) 15 Euro Surveill : 19674 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gould, E. A., Gallian, P., De Lamballerie, X., Charrel, R. N.: First cases of autochthonous dengue fever and chikungunya fever in France: From bad dream to reality! Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 16, 1702–1704 (2010).

    Charrel R. N. , 'First cases of autochthonous dengue fever and chikungunya fever in France: From bad dream to reality! ' (2010 ) 16 Clin. Microbiol. Infect. : 1702 -1704.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hubálek, Z., Halouzka, J.: West Nile fever - a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5, 643–650 (1999).

    Halouzka J. , 'West Nile fever - a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe ' (1999 ) 5 Emerging Infectious Diseases : 643 -650.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rizzo, C., Vescio, F., Declich, S., Finarelli, A. C., Macini, P., Mattivi, A., Rossini, G., Piovesan, C., Barzon, L., Palù, G., Gobbi, F., Macchi, L., Pavan, A., Magurano, F., Ciufolini, M. G., Nicoletti, L., Salmaso, S., Rezza, G.: West Nile virus transmission with human cases in Italy, August - September 2009. Euro Surveill. 14, pii=19353 (2009).

  • Papa, A., Danis, K., Baka, A., Bakas, A., Dougas, G., Lytras, T., Theocharopoulos, G., Chrysagis, D., Vassiliadou, E., Kamaria, F., Liona, A., Mellou, K., Saroglou, G., Panagiotopoulos, T.: Ongoing outbreak of West Nile virus infections in humans in Greece, July–August 2010. Euro Surveill. 15, pii=19644 (2010).

  • Sirbu, A., Ceianu, C. S., Panculescu-Gatej, R. I., Vázquez, A., Tenorio, A., Rebreanu, R., Niedrig, M., Nicolescu, G., Pistol, A.: Outbreak of West Nile virus infection in humans, Romania, July to October 2010. Euro Surveill. 16, pii=19762 (2011).

  • Szalkai, T.: [The significance and seroepidemiological investigation of West Nile virus infection in Hungary.] MA Thesis [in Hungarian]. Faculty of Science of Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary (2008).

    Szalkai T. , '', in The significance and seroepidemiological investigation of West Nile virus infection in Hungary , (2008 ) -.

  • Bakonyi, T., Ivanics, E., Erdélyi, K., Ursu, K., Ferenczi, E., Weissenböck, H., Nowotny, N.: Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 618–623 (2006).

    Nowotny N. , 'Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe ' (2006 ) 12 Emerg. Infect. Dis. : 618 -623.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Erdélyi, K., Ursu, K., Ferenczi, E., Szeredi, L., Rátz, F., Skáre, J., Bakonyi, T.: Clinical and pathologic features of lineage 2 West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in Hungary. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 7, 181–188 (2007).

    Bakonyi T. , 'Clinical and pathologic features of lineage 2 West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in Hungary ' (2007 ) 7 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis : 181 -188.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Krisztalovics, K., Ferenczi, E., Molnár, Z., Csohán, Á., Bán, E., Zöldi, V., Kaszás, K.: West Nile virus infections in Hungary, August-September 2008. Eurosurveillance 13, November 06 (2008).

  • Tilley, P. A., Fox, J. D., Jayaraman, G. C., Preiksaitis, J. K.: Maculopapular rash and tremor are associated with West Nile fever and neurological syndromes. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 78, 529–531 (2007).

    Preiksaitis J. K. , 'Maculopapular rash and tremor are associated with West Nile fever and neurological syndromes ' (2007 ) 78 J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry : 529 -531.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mostashari, F., Bunning, M. L., Kitsutani, P. T., Singer, D. A., Nash, D., Cooper, M. J., Katz, N., Liljebjelke, K. A., Biggerstaff, B. J., Fine, A. D., Layton, M. C., Mullin, S. M., Johnson, A. J., Martin, D. A., Hayes, E. B., Campbell, G. L.: Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: Results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet 358, 261–264 (2001).

    Campbell G. L. , 'Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: Results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey ' (2001 ) 358 Lancet : 261 -264.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chowers, M. Y., Lang, R., Nassar, F., Ben-David, D., Giladi, M., Rubinshtein, E., Itzhaki, A., Mishal, J., Siegman-Igra, Y., Kitzes, R., Pick, N., Landau, Z., Wolf, D., Bin, H., Mendelson, E., Pitlik, S. D., Weinberger, M.: Clinical characteristics of the West Nile fever outbreak, Israel. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7, 678 (2001).

    Weinberger M. , 'Clinical characteristics of the West Nile fever outbreak, Israel ' (2001 ) 7 Emerg. Infect. Dis. : 678 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Watson, J. T., Pertel, P. E., Jones, R. C., Siston, A. M., Paul, W. S., Austin, C. C., Gerber, S. I.: Clinical characteristics and functional outcomes of West Nile fever. Ann. Intern. Med. 141, 360–365 (2004).

    Gerber S. I. , 'Clinical characteristics and functional outcomes of West Nile fever ' (2004 ) 141 Ann. Intern. Med. : 360 -365.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brown, J. A., Factor, D. L., Tkachenko, N., Templeton, S. M., Crall, N. D., Pape, W. J., Bauer, M. J., Ambruso, D. R., Dickey, W. C., Marfin, A. A.: West Nile viremic blood donors and risk factors for subsequent West Nile fever. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7, 479–488 (2007).

    Marfin A. A. , 'West Nile viremic blood donors and risk factors for subsequent West Nile fever ' (2007 ) 7 Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases : 479 -488.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anderson, R. C., Horn, K. B., Hoang, M. P., Gottlieb, E., Bennin, B.: Punctate exanthem of West Nile Virus infection: Report of 3 cases. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 820–823 (2004).

    Bennin B. , 'Punctate exanthem of West Nile Virus infection: Report of 3 cases ' (2004 ) 51 J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. : 820 -823.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Del Giudice, P., Schuffenecker, I., Zeller, H., Grelier, M., Vandenbos, F., Dellamonica, P., Counillon, E.: Skin manifestations of West Nile virus infection. Dermatology 211, 348–350 (2005).

    Counillon E. , 'Skin manifestations of West Nile virus infection ' (2005 ) 211 Dermatology : 348 -350.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ferguson, D. D., Gershman, K., LeBailly, A., Petersen, L. R.: Characteristics of the rash associated with West Nile virus fever. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41, 1204–1207 (2005).

    Petersen L. R. , 'Characteristics of the rash associated with West Nile virus fever ' (2005 ) 41 Clin. Infect. Dis. : 1204 -1207.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smithburn, K. C., Hughes, T. P., Burke, A. W., Paul, J. H.: Aneurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native of Uganda. Am. J. Trop. Med. 20, 471–492 (1940).

    Paul J. H. , 'Aneurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native of Uganda ' (1940 ) 20 Am. J. Trop. Med. : 471 -492.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nash, D., Mostashari, F., Fine, A., Miller, J., O’Leary, D., Murray, K., Huang, A., Rosenberg, A., Greenberg, A., Sherman, M., Wong, S., Layton, M., and 1999 West Nile Outbreak Response Working Group: The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N. Engl. J. Med. 344, 1807–1814 (2001).

    Layton M. , 'The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999 ' (2001 ) 344 N. Engl. J. Med. : 1807 -1814.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Littaua, R., Kurane, I., Ennis, F. A.: Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. J. Imm. 144, 3183–3186 (1990).

    Ennis F. A. , 'Human IgG Fc receptor II mediates antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection ' (1990 ) 144 J. Imm. : 3183 -3186.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ferenczi, E., Bán, E., Ábrahám, A., Kaposi, T., Petrányi, G., Berencsi, G., Vaheri, A.: Severe tick-borne encephalitis in a patient previously infected by West Nile virus. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 40, 759–761 (2008).

    Vaheri A. , 'Severe tick-borne encephalitis in a patient previously infected by West Nile virus ' (2008 ) 40 Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases : 759 -761.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2020 2 0 0
Sep 2020 2 0 0
Oct 2020 4 0 0
Nov 2020 0 0 0
Dec 2020 1 0 0
Jan 2021 0 0 0
Feb 2021 0 0 0