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  • 1 Erciyes University Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy Kayseri Turkey
  • 2 Kayseri Education and Research Hospital Department of Pediatric Hematology Kayseri Turkey
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on the immune response of levamisole alone and in conjunction with Candida albicans stimulation in human macrophage cell culture by determining the alterations in the levels of cytokine release.Levamisole treatment was performed before, during and after infecting U-937 human macrophage cells with C. albicans. In cell supernatants, interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-12, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured by ELISA.In vitro levamisole treatment accompanied by C. albicans stimulation significantly increased IL-12, IL-1β and IL-18 production in macrophage cells (p < 0.05). It was observed that when administered before C. albicans infection, levamisole significantly increased IL-12 and IL-1β production in macrophage cells (p < 0.05). Another finding was that when applied to macrophage cells simultaneously with C. albicans infection, or before infection with C. albicans, levamisole suppressed the TNF-β production stimulating effect of C. albicans (p < 0.05).These results indicated that levamisole could be useful in treating patients infected with C. albicans or in protecting individuals under the risk of being infected with this pathogen. There is a need for further experimental and clinical studies on this hypothesis.

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